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# Bandgap tuning of two-dimensional materials by sphere diameter engineering

## Abstract

Developing a precise and reproducible bandgap tuning method that enables tailored design of materials is of crucial importance for optoelectronic devices. Towards this end, we report a sphere diameter engineering (SDE) technique to manipulate the bandgap of two-dimensional (2D) materials. A one-to-one correspondence with an ideal linear working curve is established between the bandgap of MoS2 and the sphere diameter in a continuous range as large as 360 meV. Fully uniform bandgap tuning of all the as-grown MoS2 crystals is realized due to the isotropic characteristic of the sphere. More intriguingly, both a decrease and an increase of the bandgap can be achieved by constructing a positive or negative curvature. By fusing individual spheres in the melted state, post-synthesis bandgap adjustment of the supported 2D materials can be realized. This SDE technique, showing good precision, uniformity and reproducibility with high efficiency, may further accelerate the potential applications of 2D materials.

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## Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

## Code availability

The custom code for the phase field analysis is available from the corresponding authors upon reasonable request.

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## Acknowledgements

The research was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 21673161, 21905210 and 21473124), the Sino-German Center for Research Promotion (grant GZ 1400) and the Postdoctoral Innovation Talent Support Program of China (grant BX20180224). This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under contract no. DE-AC02-06CH11357. We thank H. Xu for PL characterizations. L.F. acknowledges support by Wuhan University President’s Funding.

## Author information

Authors

### Contributions

L.F. developed the concept and conceived the experiments. H.Z. contributed to the surface XRD measurement via synchrotron radiation. M.Q.Z. and J.X.L. carried out the main experiments. L.F., M.Q.Z. and J.X.L. wrote the manuscript. M.Q.Z., J.X.L., L. Zhou, R.G.M., Y.Q.D., M.-Y.Z., Z.-H.C., Z.H.C., Z.Z., D.M.Z., T.Y.Y., X.L.L., J.Q.W., L. Zhao, G.X.C., H.J., M.H.R. and H.Z. contributed to data analysis and scientific discussion.

### Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Hua Zhou or Lei Fu.

## Ethics declarations

### Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

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## Supplementary information

### Supplementary Information

Supplementary discussions, Figs. 1–29, Table 1 and refs. 1–40.

## Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Zeng, M., Liu, J., Zhou, L. et al. Bandgap tuning of two-dimensional materials by sphere diameter engineering. Nat. Mater. 19, 528–533 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-0622-y

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• DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-0622-y

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