Sodium ion batteries, because of their sustainability attributes, could be an attractive alternative to Li-ion technology for specific applications. However, it remains challenging to design high energy density and moisture stable Na-based positive electrodes. Here, we report an O3-type NaLi1/3Mn2/3O2 phase showing anionic redox activity, obtained through a ceramic process by carefully adjusting synthesis conditions and stoichiometry. This phase shows a sustained reversible capacity of 190 mAh g−1 that is rooted in cumulative oxygen and manganese redox processes as deduced by combined spectroscopy techniques. Unlike many other anionic redox layered oxides so far reported, O3-NaLi1/3Mn2/3O2 electrodes do not show discernible voltage fade on cycling. This finding, rationalized by density functional theory, sheds light on the role of inter- versus intralayer 3d cationic migration in ruling voltage fade in anionic redox electrodes. Another practical asset of this material stems from its moisture stability, hence facilitating its handling and electrode processing. Overall, this work offers future directions towards designing highly performing sodium electrodes for advanced Na-ion batteries.
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Q.W. thanks Renault S.A.S for PhD funding. J.-M.T. acknowledges the funding from European Research Council (ERC) (FP/2014)/ERC grant/project no. 670116-ARPEMA. A.M.A. and A.V.M. are grateful to Russian Science Foundation for the financial support (grant no. 20-43-01012). Access to the TEM facilities has been granted by Advance Imaging Core Facility of Skoltech. We thank the ROCK beamline at SOLEIL (Gif-sur-Yvette, France) for X-ray spectroscopy experiments (financed by the French National Research Agency (ANR) as a part of the ‘Investissements d’Avenir’ programme, reference ANR-10-EQPX-45; proposal nos. 20171234 and 20190596). HAXPES measurements were performed at GALAXIES beamline at the SOLEIL Synchrotron, France under proposal nos. 20171035 and 20190646. This work used resources of the Advanced Photon Source (11-BM), a US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under contract no. DE-AC02-06CH11357. NPD measurements were performed using the ECHIDNA instrument at ANSTO (Sydney, Australia). We are grateful to A. Iadecola for the help during XAS measurements. We thank S. Trabesinger, D. Giaume, M.F. Lagadec, W. Yin, A. Perez, B. Li, G. Yan, G. Assat and J. Vergnet for fruitful discussions. We acknowledge the staff of the MPBT (physical properties, low temperature) platform of Sorbonne Université for their support.
The O3-Na(Li1/3Mn2/3)O2 material is patented by Renault (inventors Q.W., M.C., S.M. and J.-M.T.) with patent application number B19-5233FR (pending).
Peer review information Nature Materials thanks Naoaki Yabuuchi and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
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Wang, Q., Mariyappan, S., Rousse, G. et al. Unlocking anionic redox activity in O3-type sodium 3d layered oxides via Li substitution. Nat. Mater. 20, 353–361 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-00870-8
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