(a) The stress-strain curve of the HELIOS dielectric stretched at different speeds. The modulus increases when stretching at higher speed, which is the typical behaviour of supramolecular polymers22,36. (b) Photograph showing tensile bar specimen (Type V) following ASTM standard D638 with 7.62 cm (gauge length) x 3.18 cm (width). (c) Dielectric-EL sample and (d) three-layered HELIOS device samples were subjected to ten loading-unloading cycles (loading at 1 mm s−1 and unloading at 1 mm min−1). These materials recovered to its original length when subjected to a strain of 50% over time.