Ultrafast pyroelectric photodetection with on-chip spectral filters

Abstract

Thermal detectors, such as bolometric, pyroelectric and thermoelectric devices, are uniquely capable of sensing incident radiation for any electromagnetic frequency; however, the response times of practical devices are typically on the millisecond scale1,2,3,4,5,6,7. By integrating a plasmonic metasurface with an aluminium nitride pyroelectric thin film, we demonstrate spectrally selective, room-temperature pyroelectric detectors from 660–2,000 nm with an instrument-limited 1.7 ns full width at half maximum and 700 ps rise time. Heat generated from light absorption diffuses through the subwavelength absorber into the pyroelectric film producing responsivities up to 0.18 V W−1 due to the temperature-dependent spontaneous polarization of the pyroelectric films. Moreover, finite-element simulations reveal the possibility of reaching a 25 ps full width at half maximum and 6 ps rise time rivalling that of semiconductor photodiodes8. This design approach has the potential to realize large-area, inexpensive gigahertz pyroelectric detectors for wavelength-specific detection from the ultraviolet to short-wave infrared or beyond for, for example, high-speed hyperspectral imaging.

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Fig. 1: Metasurface-pyroelectric detector concept.
Fig. 2: Temporal detector response.
Fig. 3: Responsivity characterization.
Fig. 4: Noise performance.

Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding authors on reasonable request.

Code availability

The code for the optical and thermal simulations is available from the corresponding authors on reasonable request.

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Acknowledgements

J.W.S. and M.H.M. acknowledge support from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (grant nos. FA9550-18-1-0326 and FA9550-17-1-0002). W.L. and S.F. acknowledge support by the U.S. Department of Energy (grant no. DE-FG02-07ER46426). J.W.S. also acknowledges support from the Department of Defense through the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship Program.

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Contributions

J.H.V. and M.H.M. conceived and planned the project. J.W.S. and J.H.V. fabricated the samples. J.W.S. built the experimental setup and performed the experiments. J.W.S. analysed the data. J.W.S. and W.L. performed the finite-element simulations. J.H.V., S.F. and M.H.M. supervised the effort. J.W.S., J.H.V. and M.H.M. wrote the manuscript. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Maiken H. Mikkelsen.

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Supplementary Information

Supplementary discussion, Figs. 1–4 and Table 1.

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Stewart, J.W., Vella, J.H., Li, W. et al. Ultrafast pyroelectric photodetection with on-chip spectral filters. Nat. Mater. 19, 158–162 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-019-0538-6

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