Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Lasing under ultralow pumping

Ultralow-threshold plasmonic lasers under continuous-wave pumping at room temperature have been created using lattice plasmonic cavities integrated with gain material consisting of upconverting nanoparticles.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Threshold of lasers.
Fig. 2: Ultralow-threshold plasmonic lasers under continuous-wave (CW) pumping at room temperature.


  1. 1.

    Bergman, D. J. & Stockman, M. I. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Berini, P. & De Leon, I. Nat. Photon. 6, 16–24 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Wang, S. et al. Nat. Commun. 8, 1889 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Ma, R.-M. & Oulton, R. F. Nat. Nanotechnol. 14, 12–22 (2019).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Fernandez-Bravo, A. et al. Nat. Mater. (2019).

  6. 6.

    Einstein, A. Phy. Z. 18, 121–128 (1917).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Khurgin, J. B. & Sun, G. Nat. Photon. 8, 468–473 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Ross, M. B., Mirkin, C. A. & Schatz, G. C. J. Phys. Chem. C. 120, 816–830 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Zheludev, N. I., Prosvirnin, S. L., Papasimakis, N. & Fedotov, V. A. Nat. Photon. 2, 351–354 (2008).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Zhou, W. et al. Nat. Nanotech. 8, 506–511 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Zhou, B., Shi, B., Jin, D. & Liu, X. Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 924–936 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Tian, B. et al. Nat. Commun. 9, 3082 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ren-Min Ma.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ma, RM. Lasing under ultralow pumping. Nat. Mater. 18, 1152–1153 (2019).

Download citation

Further reading


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing