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Fundamentals of inorganic solid-state electrolytes for batteries

Abstract

In the critical area of sustainable energy storage, solid-state batteries have attracted considerable attention due to their potential safety, energy-density and cycle-life benefits. This Review describes recent progress in the fundamental understanding of inorganic solid electrolytes, which lie at the heart of the solid-state battery concept, by addressing key issues in the areas of multiscale ion transport, electrochemical and mechanical properties, and current processing routes. The main electrolyte-related challenges for practical solid-state devices include utilization of metal anodes, stabilization of interfaces and the maintenance of physical contact, the solutions to which hinge on gaining greater knowledge of the underlying properties of solid electrolyte materials.

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Fig. 1: Schematic representation of a bipolar-stacked solid-state battery cell.
Fig. 2: Multiscale ion transport and major associated techniques.
Fig. 3: Cation migration mechanisms and associated energy profiles.
Fig. 4: Evolution of chemical potential across the solid electrolyte in contact with an anode and a cathode.
Fig. 5: Reaction possibilities and functional scenarios for solid electrolyte/electrode interfaces in solid-state batteries.
Fig. 6: Mechanical degradation of a solid-state battery.
Fig. 7: Simplified flowchart of available methods for the processing of solid electrolytes for solid-state batteries.

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Acknowledgements

T.F. acknowledges the Alistore ERI (http://www.alistore.eu/) and CNRS for their financial support in the form of a joint PhD scholarship between Amiens (France) and Bath (UK). P.C. is grateful to the Ramsey Memorial Trust and the University of Bath for the provision of his Ramsey Fellowship. M.S.I. and J.A.D. gratefully acknowledge the EPSRC Programme Grant (EP/M009521/1). The authors are grateful to D. Efremidis for help with the graphical design for Fig. 1.

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T.F., P.C. and J.A.D. carried out the literature review and T.F. drafted the manuscript. All authors contributed to the analysis, discussion and revisions leading to the final version of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Theodosios Famprikis, M. Saiful Islam or Christian Masquelier.

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Famprikis, T., Canepa, P., Dawson, J.A. et al. Fundamentals of inorganic solid-state electrolytes for batteries. Nat. Mater. 18, 1278–1291 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-019-0431-3

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