Ex vivo CRISPR gene editing in haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells has opened potential treatment modalities for numerous diseases. The current process uses electroporation, sometimes followed by virus transduction. While this complex manipulation has resulted in high levels of gene editing at some genetic loci, cellular toxicity was observed. We have developed a CRISPR nanoformulation based on colloidal gold nanoparticles with a unique loading design capable of cellular entry without the need for electroporation or viruses. This highly monodispersed nanoformulation avoids lysosomal entrapment and localizes to the nucleus in primary human blood progenitors without toxicity. Nanoformulation-mediated gene editing is efficient and sustained with different CRISPR nucleases at multiple loci of therapeutic interest. The engraftment kinetics of nanoformulation-treated primary cells in humanized mice are better relative to those of non-treated cells, with no differences in differentiation. Here we demonstrate non-toxic delivery of the entire CRISPR payload into primary human blood progenitors.
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The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Sequence data are available for download through the National Center for Biotechnology Information (BioProject ID: PRJNA529681).
The bioinformatics pipeline used to analyse sequencing reads is available via GitHub (https://github.com/FredHutch-CGT/FredHutch_CGT_Gene_Edit_1).
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We thank the healthy donors who submitted to mobilization and leukapheresis collection. We thank the laboratory of M. Zhang at the University of Washington for access to and use of Nanosizer equipment. We extend a special thanks to H. Crawford for assistance in manuscript preparation, and J. Chen and C. Ironside for excellent support in animal studies. This work was primarily supported by funds to J.E.A. from the Fred Hutch including Development and Evergreen awards, and the Hartwell Foundation. This research was also funded in part through a pilot study award to R.S. from the NIDDK Cooperative Center of Excellence in Hematology grant U54 DK106829. All shared resources used in this study were supported by the NIH/NCI Cancer Center Support Grant P30 CA015704. H.-P.K. is a Markey Molecular Medicine Investigator, the inaugural recipient of the José Carreras/E. Donnall Thomas Endowed Chair for Cancer Research and the Fred Hutch Endowed Chair for Cell and Gene Therapy.