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Beyond 100% doping efficiency

A single dopant molecule can exchange more than one charge with the hosting polymer semiconductor, doubling the maximum doping efficiency achievable.

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Fig. 1: Double p-doping.


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Correspondence to Björn Lüssem.

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Lüssem, B. Beyond 100% doping efficiency. Nature Mater 18, 93–94 (2019).

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