Graphene and other two-dimensional materials possess desirable mechanical, electrical and chemical properties for incorporation into or onto colloidal particles, potentially granting them unique electronic functions. However, this application has not yet been realized, because conventional top-down lithography scales poorly for producing colloidal solutions. Here, we develop an ‘autoperforation’ technique that provides a means of spontaneous assembly for surfaces composed of two-dimensional molecular scaffolds. Chemical vapour deposited two-dimensional sheets can autoperforate into circular envelopes when sandwiching a microprinted polymer composite disk of nanoparticle ink, allowing liftoff into solution and simultaneous assembly. The resulting colloidal microparticles have two independently addressable, external Janus faces that we show can function as an intraparticle array of vertically aligned, two-terminal electronic devices. Such particles demonstrate remarkable chemical and mechanical stability and form the basis of particulate electronic devices capable of collecting and storing information about their surroundings, extending nanoelectronics into previously inaccessible environments.
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All relevant data and computer codes are available from the authors and most of them are included within the Supplementary Information, including sections on modelling and simulations, Supplementary Figs 1–60 and Supplementary Videos 1–12. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to M.S.S.
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This work was primarily funded by a 2015 US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) Multi University Research Initiative (MURI) grant on Foldable and Adaptive Two-Dimensional Electronics (FATE) at MIT, Harvard University and University of Southern California (award no. FA9550-15-1-0514). The authors acknowledge characterization support from The MIT Center for Materials Science and Engineering, and support for graphene synthesis and characterization from the Army Research Office and support via award no. 64655-CH-ISN to the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies. P.L. acknowledges the ‘One-hundred Talents Program’ of Zhejiang University. A.T.L. acknowledges the MIT Presidential Fellow programme. D.K. is supported by a Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows (JSPS KAKENHI grant no. 15J07423) and Encouragement of Young Scientists (B) (JSPS KAKENHI grant no. JP16K17485) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. V.B.K. is supported by The Swiss National Science Foundation (project no. P2ELP3_162149).
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Supplementary Figures 1–60, Supplementary Table 1, Supplementary References 1–23.
Strain guided fracture propagation of graphene with stochastic seed crack formation.
Finite element coarse grained MD simulation for mould-based graphene folding.
Autoperforation for G-PS-G microparticles—lift-off process on SiO2-Si substrate—I.
Autoperforation for G-PS-G microparticles—lift-off process on SiO2-Si substrate—II.
Autoperforation for G-PS-G microparticles—lift-off process on PDMS substrate.
Control—lift-off process of PS control microparticles without grapheme.
Flowing and rotating of G-PS-G microparticles in microfluidic channel.
Magnetic propulsion of Gr-Fe3O4-PS-Gr microparticles.
Autoperforation for G-PS microparticles with only one layer of graphene (Graphene A).
Autoperforation for PS-G microparticles with only one layer of graphene (Graphene B).
The whole process starting from autoperforation, capturing, information write in, lift-off, recapturing to information readout.
Aerosolization of G-PS-G microparticles with atomizer.
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Liu, P., Liu, A.T., Kozawa, D. et al. Autoperforation of 2D materials for generating two-terminal memristive Janus particles. Nature Mater 17, 1005–1012 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-018-0197-z
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