Optical excitation and subsequent decay of graphene plasmons can produce a significant increase in charge-carrier temperature. An efficient method to convert this temperature elevation into electrical signals can enable important mid-infrared applications. However, the modest thermoelectric coefficient and weak temperature dependence of carrier transport in graphene hinder this goal. Here, we demonstrate mid-infrared graphene detectors consisting of arrays of plasmonic resonators interconnected by quasi-one-dimensional nanoribbons. Localized barriers associated with disorder in the nanoribbons produce a dramatic temperature dependence of carrier transport, thus enabling the electrical detection of plasmon decay in the nearby graphene resonators. Our device has a subwavelength footprint of 5 × 5 μm2 and operates at 12.2 μm with an external responsivity of 16 mA W–1 and a low noise-equivalent power of 1.3 nW Hz–1/2 at room temperature. It is fabricated using large-scale graphene and possesses a simple two-terminal geometry, representing an essential step towards the realization of an on-chip graphene mid-infrared detector array.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $8.25 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Maier, S. A. Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, New York, NY, 2007).
Schuller, J. A. et al. Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation. Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
Brongersma, M. L., Halas, N. J. & Nordlander, P. Plasmon-induced hot carrier science and technology. Nat. Nanotech. 10, 25–34 (2015).
Brown, A. M., Sundararaman, R., Narang, P., Goddard, W. A. III & Atwater, H. A. Nonradiative plasmon decay and hot carrier dynamics: effects of phonons, surfaces, and geometry. ACS Nano 10, 957–966 (2015).
Knight, M. W., Sobhani, H., Nordlander, P. & Halas, N. J. Photodetection with active optical antennas. Science 332, 702–704 (2011).
Schuck, P. J. Nanoimaging: hot electrons go through the barrier. Nat. Nanotech. 8, 799–800 (2013).
Wunsch, B., Stauber, T., Sols, F. & Guinea, F. Dynamical polarization of graphene at finite doping. New J. Phys. 8, 318 (2006).
Hwang, E. & Sarma, S. D. Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene. Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 (2007).
García de Abajo, F. J. Graphene plasmonics: challenges and opportunities. ACS Photon 1, 135–152 (2014).
Yu, R. & García de Abajo, F. J. Electrical detection of single graphene plasmons. ACS Nano 10, 8045–8053 (2016).
Fei, Z. et al. Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging. Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
Chen, J. et al. Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons. Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
Ju, L. et al. Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials. Nat. Nanotech. 6, 630–634 (2011).
Yan, H. et al. Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures. Nat. Photon. 7, 394–399 (2013).
Woessner, A. et al. Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene–boron nitride heterostructures. Nat. Mater. 14, 421–425 (2015).
Grigorenko, A., Polini, M. & Novoselov, K. Graphene plasmonics. Nat. Photon. 6, 749–758 (2012).
Ni, G. et al. Fundamental limits to graphene plasmonics. Nature 557, 530–533 (2018).
Caldwell, J. D. et al. Low-loss, infrared and terahertz nanophotonics using surface phonon polaritons. Nanophotonics 4, 44–68 (2015).
Dai, S. et al. Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride. Science 343, 1125–1129 (2014).
Giles, A. J. et al. Ultralow-loss polaritons in isotopically pure boron nitride. Nat. Mater. 17, 134–139 (2018).
Gierz, I. et al. Snapshots of non-equilibrium Dirac carrier distributions in graphene. Nat. Mater. 12, 1119–1124 (2013).
Zuev, Y. M., Chang, W. & Kim, P. Thermoelectric and magnetothermoelectric transport measurements of graphene. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 096807 (2009).
Lundeberg, M. B. et al. Thermoelectric detection and imaging of propagating graphene plasmons. Nat. Mater. 16, 204–207 (2017).
Gabor, N. M. et al. Hot carrier–assisted intrinsic photoresponse in graphene. Science 334, 648–652 (2011).
Huang, P. Y. et al. Grains and grain boundaries in single-layer graphene atomic patchwork quilts. Nature 469, 389–392 (2011).
Heo, J. et al. Nonmonotonic temperature dependent transport in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. Phys. Rev. B 84, 035421 (2011).
Yan, J. et al. Dual-gated bilayer graphene hot-electron bolometer. Nat. Nanotech. 7, 472–478 (2012).
Freitag, M. et al. Photocurrent in graphene harnessed by tunable intrinsic plasmons. Nat. Commun. 4, 1951 (2013).
Han, M. Y., Özyilmaz, B., Zhang, Y. & Kim, P. Energy band-gap engineering of graphene nanoribbons. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 206805 (2007).
Han, M. Y., Brant, J. C. & Kim, P. Electron transport in disordered graphene nanoribbons. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 056801 (2010).
Gallagher, P., Todd, K. & Goldhaber-Gordon, D. Disorder-induced gap behavior in graphene nanoribbons. Phys. Rev. B 81, 115409 (2010).
Stampfer, C. et al. Energy gaps in etched graphene nanoribbons. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 056403 (2009).
Chen, Z., Lin, Y.-M., Rooks, M. J. & Avouris, P. Graphene nano-ribbon electronics. Physica E 40, 228–232 (2007).
Rodrigo, D. et al. Double-layer graphene for enhanced tunable infrared plasmonics. Light. Sci. Appl. 6, e16277 (2017).
Yan, H. et al. Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks. Nat. Nanotech. 7, 330–334 (2012).
Robertson, J. Diamond-like amorphous carbon. Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 37, 129–281 (2002).
Shamsa, M. et al. Thermal conductivity of diamond-like carbon films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161921 (2006).
Deng, B. et al. Coupling-enhanced broadband mid-infrared light absorption in graphene plasmonic nanostructures. ACS Nano 10, 11172–11178 (2016).
Song, J. C., Reizer, M. Y. & Levitov, L. S. Disorder-assisted electron-phonon scattering and cooling pathways in graphene. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 106602 (2012).
McKitterick, C. B., Prober, D. E. & Rooks, M. J. Electron-phonon cooling in large monolayer graphene devices. Phys. Rev. B 93, 075410 (2016).
Crossno, J. et al. Observation of the Dirac fluid and the breakdown of the Wiedemann-Franz law in graphene. Science 351, 1058–1061 (2016).
Betz, A. et al. Supercollision cooling in undoped graphene. Nat. Phys. 9, 109–112 (2013).
Graham, M. W., Shi, S.-F., Ralph, D. C., Park, J. & McEuen, P. L. Photocurrent measurements of supercollision cooling in graphene. Nat. Phys. 9, 103–108 (2013).
Pop, E., Varshney, V. & Roy, A. K. Thermal properties of graphene: fundamentals and applications. MRS Bull. 37, 1273–1281 (2012).
Yan, H. et al. Infrared spectroscopy of wafer-scale graphene. ACS Nano 5, 9854–9860 (2011).
Efetov, D. K. et al. Fast thermal relaxation in cavity-coupled graphene bolometers with a Johnson noise read-out. Nat. Nanotech. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-018-0169-0 (2018).
Balandin, A. A. Low-frequency 1/f noise in graphene devices. Nat. Nanotech. 8, 549–555 (2013).
Khorasaninejad, M., Chen, W. T., Oh, J. & Capasso, F. Super-dispersive off-axis meta-lenses for compact high resolution spectroscopy. Nano Lett. 16, 3732–3737 (2016).
Rogalski, A., Martyniuk, P. & Kopytko, M. Challenges of small-pixel infrared detectors: a review. Rep. Prog. Phys. 79, 046501 (2016).
Medina, A., Gayá, F. & Del Pozo, F. Compact laser radar and three-dimensional camera. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 800–805 (2006).
Korneev, A., Korneeva, Y., Florya, I., Voronov, B. & Goltsman, G. NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared. Phys. Procedia 36, 72–76 (2012).
Laurent, L., Yon, J.-J., Moulet, J.-S., Roukes, M. & Duraffourg, L. 12-μm-pitch electromechanical resonator for thermal sensing. Phys. Rev. Appl. 9, 024016 (2018).
Ilic, O. et al. Near-field thermal radiation transfer controlled by plasmons in graphene. Phys. Rev. B 85, 155422 (2012).
Yu, R., Manjavacas, A. & García de Abajo, F. J. Ultrafast radiative heat transfer. Nat. Commun. 8, 2 (2017).
Talghader, J. J., Gawarikar, A. S. & Shea, R. P. Spectral selectivity in infrared thermal detection. Light Sci. Appl. 1, e24 (2012).
McManamon, P. Review of ladar: a historic, yet emerging, sensor technology with rich phenomenology. Opt. Eng. 51, 060901 (2012).
Capasso, F. et al. Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511–532 (2002).
We acknowledge the National Science Foundation (CAREER Award ECCS-1552461) for financial support. We also thank the Office of Naval Research (N00014-14-1-0565) for partial support in the photocurrent measurement set-up. We thank X. Li and J. Kong for providing some of the monolayer graphene on copper for this project and IBM Research for providing DLC on silicon substrates. F.J.G.d.A. and R.Y. acknowledge support from the Spanish MINECO (MAT2017-88492-R and SEV2015-0522), the European Commission (Graphene Flagship 696656) and Fundació Privada Cellex.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Guo, Q., Yu, R., Li, C. et al. Efficient electrical detection of mid-infrared graphene plasmons at room temperature. Nature Mater 17, 986–992 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-018-0157-7
Silica optical fiber integrated with two-dimensional materials: towards opto-electro-mechanical technology
Light: Science & Applications (2021)
Nature Electronics (2021)
There is plenty of room at the top: generation of hot charge carriers and their applications in perovskite and other semiconductor-based optoelectronic devices
Light: Science & Applications (2021)
Nature Photonics (2021)
Nano Research (2021)