The past decade has witnessed the accelerating development of immunotherapies for cancer treatment. Immune checkpoint blockade therapies and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapies have demonstrated clinical efficacy against a variety of cancers. However, issues including life-threatening off-target side effects, long processing times, limited patient responses and high cost still limit the clinical utility of cancer immunotherapies. Biomaterial carriers of these therapies, though, enable one to troubleshoot the delivery issues, amplify immunomodulatory effects, integrate the synergistic effect of different molecules and, more importantly, home and manipulate immune cells in vivo. In this Review, we will analyse thus-far developed immunomaterials for targeted modulation of dendritic cells, T cells, tumour-associated macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, B cells and natural killer cells, and summarize the promises and challenges of cell-targeted immunomodulation for cancer treatment.
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The authors would like to acknowledge funding from the National Institutes of Health (1 R01 EB023287, 1 U01 CA214369, 1 R01 CA223255). H.W. gratefully acknowledges funding support from the Wyss Technology Development Fellowship.
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