Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

The role of metal/oxide interfaces for long-range metal particle activation during CO oxidation

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Long-range effect of the metal/oxide interface on CO oxidation on Pd.
Fig. 2: Kinetic data for CO oxidation on Pd.
Fig. 3: Adsorption energies of O on Pd aggregates.


  1. 1.

    Hayek, K., Kramer, R. & Paal, Z. Metal–support boundary sites in catalysis. Appl. Catal. A 162, 1–15 (1997).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Bell, A. T. The impact of nanoscience on heterogeneous catalysis. Science 299, 1688–1691 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Campbell, C. T. Catalyst-support interactions: electronic perturbations. Nat. Chem. 4, 597–598 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Vayssilov, G. N. et al. Support nanostructure boosts oxygen transfer to catalytically active platinum nanoparticles. Nat. Mater. 10, 310–315 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Lykhach, Y. et al. Counting electrons on supported nanoparticles. Nat. Mater. 15, 284–288 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Favez, J.-Y., Weilenmann, M. & Stilli, J. Cold start extra emissions as a function of engine stop time: evolution over the last 10 years. Atmosph. Environm. 43, 996–1007 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Twigg, M. V. Catalytic control of emissions from cars. Catal. Today 163, 33–41 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Rioux, R. M., Song, H., Hoefelmeyer, J. D., Yang, P. & Somorjai, G. A. High-surface-area catalyst design: synthesis, characterization, and reaction studies of platinum nanoparticles in mesoporous SBA-15 silica. J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 2192–2202 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Mudiyanselage, K. et al. Importance of the metal–oxide interface in catalysis: in situ studies of the water–gas shift reaction by ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 52, 5101–5105 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Shao, X. et al. Tailoring the shape of metal adparticles by doping the oxide support. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 11525–11527 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Green, I. X., Tang, W., Neurock, M. & Yates, J. T. Jr Spectroscopic observation of dual catalytic sites during oxidation of CO on a Au/TiO2 catalyst. Science 333, 736–739 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Widmann, D. & Behm, R. J. Activation of molecular oxygen and the nature of the active oxygen species for CO oxidation on oxide supported Au catalysts. Acc. Chem. Res. 47, 740–749 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Pan, Q. et al. Enhanced CO oxidation on the oxide/metal interface: from ultra-high vacuum to near-atmospheric pressures. ChemCatChem 7, 2620–2627 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Suchorski, Y., Wrobel, R., Becker, S. & Weiss, H. CO oxidation on a CeO x /Pt(111) inverse model catalyst surface: catalytic promotion and tuning of kinetic phase diagrams. J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 20012–20017 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Brummel, O. et al. Stabilization of small platinum nanoparticles on Pt–CeO2 thin film electrocatalysts during methanol oxidation. J. Phys. Chem. C. 120, 19723–19726 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Ertl, G. Reactions at surfaces: from atoms to complexity (Nobel lecture). Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 3524–3535 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Zhdanov, V. P. & Kasemo, B. Kinetic phase transitions in simple reactions on solid surfaces. Surf. Sci. Rep. 20, 113–189 (1994).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Ertl, G. Reactions at Solid Surfaces (Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2009).

  19. 19.

    Vogel, D. et al. Local catalytic ignition during CO oxidation on low-index Pt and Pd surfaces: a combined PEEM, MS, and DFT study. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 10041–10044 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Datler, M., Bespalov, I., Rupprechter, G. & Suchorski, Y. Analysing the reaction kinetics for individual catalytically active components: CO oxidation on a Pd powder supported by Pt foil. Catal. Lett. 145, 1120–1125 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Vogel, D. et al. The role of defects in the local reaction kinetics of CO oxidation on low-index Pd surfaces. J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 12054–12060 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Rupprechter, G. Sum frequency generation and polarization–modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy of functioning model catalysts from ultrahigh vacuum to ambient pressure. Adv. Catal. 51, 133–263 (2007).

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Kozlov, S. M., Aleksandrov, H. A., Goniakowski, J. & Neyman, K. M. Effect of MgO(100) support on structure and properties of Pd and Pt nanoparticles with 49–155 atoms. J. Chem. Phys. 139, 084701 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Bespalov, I. et al. Initial stages of oxide formation on the Zr surface at low oxygen pressure: an in situ FIM and XPS study. Ultramicroscopy 159, 147–151 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Kresse, G. & Furthmüller, J. Efficient iterative schemes for ab initio total-energy calculations using a plane-wave basis set. Phys. Rev. B 54, 11169–11186 (1996).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Hammer, B., Hansen, L. & Nørskov, J. Improved adsorption energetics within density-functional theory using revised Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof functionals. Phys. Rev. B 59, 7413–7421 (1999).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Viñes, F., Illas, F. & Neyman, K. M. On the mechanism of formation of metal nanowires by self-assembly. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 7094–7097 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was financially supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) through project SFB FOXSI (F4504/02-N16) and by the Spanish MINECO/FEDER grant CTQ2015-64618-R and by grants 2017SGR13 and XRQTC of the Generalitat de Catalunya. The authors thank the Red Española de Supercomputación for the computer resources and technical support.

Author information




I.B., M.D., D.V. and Z.B. performed the PEEM experiments. Y.S. and G.R. supervised the experimental work and were involved in the analysis of the experimental data and the preparation of the manuscript. S.M.K. performed the DFT calculations and K.M.N. supervised the theoretical work. S.M.K. and K.M.N. analysed the calculated data and were involved in the preparation of the manuscript. All the authors contributed to the discussion and approved the manuscript. Y.S. and S.M.K. contributed equally to this work.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Konstantin M. Neyman or Günther Rupprechter.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Figures 1–8; Key calculated structures: CO molecule; O2 molecule; Pd119 particle; 2xO/Pd119 particle; 2xCO/Pd119 particle; Pd119/ZrO2(111) structure; 2xO/Pd119/ZrO2(111) structure; 2xCO/Pd119/ZrO2(111) structure; Pd119/MgO(100) structure; 2xO/Pd119/MgO(100) structure; 2xCO/Pd119/MgO(100) structure; Supplementary References 1–23

PEEM Video

PEEM video of CO oxidation on Pd-ZrO2

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Suchorski, Y., Kozlov, S.M., Bespalov, I. et al. The role of metal/oxide interfaces for long-range metal particle activation during CO oxidation. Nature Mater 17, 519–522 (2018).

Download citation

Further reading


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing