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The causal revolution in biodiversity conservation

Causal inference is needed to understand whether conservation is working. There is a substantial role for behavioural science, as interventions often depend on behaviour change. A focus on design over data, embracing mixed methods and support from funders will help to provide the evidence needed to reverse biodiversity loss.

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Fig. 1: Spectrum of conservation interventions.


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We thank D. Verissimo, E. J. Milner-Gulland, Conservation Evidence, R. Evans, G. Nicholson, H. Wauchope, E. Pynegar and C. Krekel for valuable discussion, and The Oxford Martin School and Jesus College Oxford for support.

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Correspondence to Julia P. G. Jones.

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Jones, J.P.G., Shreedhar, G. The causal revolution in biodiversity conservation. Nat Hum Behav (2024).

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