According to evolutionary theories, markets may foster an internalized and universalist prosociality because it supports market-based cooperation. This paper uses the cultural folklore of 943 pre-industrial ethnolinguistic groups to show that a society’s degree of market interactions, proxied by the presence of intercommunity trade and money, is associated with the cultural salience of (1) prosocial behaviour, (2) interpersonal trust, (3) universalist moral values and (4) moral emotions of guilt, shame and anger. To provide tentative evidence that a part of this correlation reflects a causal effect of market interactions, the analysis leverages both fine-grained geographic variation across neighbouring historical societies and plausibly exogenous variation in the presence of markets that arises through proximity to historical trade routes or the local degree of ecological diversity. The results suggest that the coevolutionary process involving markets and morality partly consists of economic markets shaping a moral system of a universalist and internalized prosociality.
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All data used for this paper are available for download at https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/EEGV7A. Source data are available at https://academic.oup.com/qje/article/136/4/1993/6124640.
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I thank J. Henrich and N. Nunn for useful discussions and feedback. I received no specific funding for this work.
The author declares no competing interests.
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Enke, B. Market exposure and human morality. Nat Hum Behav 7, 134–141 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-022-01480-x
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