Changing occupational structures and residential segregation in New York, London and Tokyo

Abstract

Based on data from the 1980s, Sassen’s influential book ‘The Global City’ interrogated how changes in the occupational structure affect socio-economic residential segregation in global cities. Here, using data for New York City, London and Tokyo, we reframe and answer this question for recent decades. Our analysis shows an increase in the share of high-income occupations, accompanied by a fall in low-income occupations in all three cities, providing strong evidence for a consistent trend of professionalization of the workforce. Segregation was highest in New York and lowest in Tokyo. In New York and London, individuals in high-income occupations are concentrating in the city centre, while low-income occupations are pushed to urban peripheries. Professionalization of the workforce is accompanied by reduced levels of segregation by income, and two ongoing megatrends in urban change: gentrification of inner-city neighbourhoods and suburbanization of poverty, with larger changes in the social geography than in levels of segregation.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Changes of occupational structure.
Fig. 2: The distribution of the high-income occupational group.
Fig. 3: The distribution of the low-income occupational group.

Data availability

The main data used in our study are national census data for the United States, Japan and the United Kingdom. The data for each country are publicly available and owned by the respective governments (the US Census Bureau for New York; the Office for National Statistics for London; and the Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications for Tokyo). All data can be obtained from the original source. Detailed information for each city is listed below. Tokyo: we used national census data for Tokyo for 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010. The 1980 and 1990 data are available from Statistical Information Institute for Consulting and Analysis (http://www.sinfonica.or.jp/datalist/index.html) for a fee. The 2000 and 2010 data are available through the e-Stat website of Statistics Bureau of Japan (https://www.e-stat.go.jp/gis/statmap-search?page=1&type=1&toukeiCode=00200521). London: we used national census data for London for 1981, 1991, 2001 and 2011. The data for the first three of these years are available from the Casweb website (UK Data Service) of the Economic and Social Research Council (http://casweb.ukdataservice.ac.uk/). Data for 2011 are available through the Nomis website by the Office of National Statistics (https://www.nomisweb.co.uk/) or from http://infuse.ukdataservice.ac.uk/. New York: we used national census data for New York for 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010. The 1980 and 1990 data are available through Social Explorer (https://www.socialexplorer.com/). The 2000 and 2010 data are available on the American FactFinder website of the US Census Bureau (https://www.census.gov/data/data-tools/american-factfinder.html). In addition to the census data, we have used nationally representative survey data which include information on income levels for occupations for each of the three countries and for multiple periods. These data are publicly available. For New York City, we used data at the national level from the Current Population Survey 1983 and 1989, which are derived from Mellor49, and Ilg and Haugen50, respectively. In addition, we used the Occupational Employment Statistics to obtain mean hourly wage by occupation for New York State for the 2000–2010 period. For 1983, ref. 49; 1989, ref. 50; 2000 and 2010, https://www.bls.gov/oes/tables.htm. For London we used data from the NES and ASHE. The nationwide NES occupational tables cited from Routh51 provide average annual pay as of 1979 by occupation. The NES (1990) and the ASHE (2000–2010) provide median gross weekly pay for full-time employees. For 1979, ref. 51; 1990, 2000 and 2010, https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/earningsandworkinghours/datalist. Finally, for Tokyo, we used the Employment Status Survey (1982, 1992, 2002 and 2012) which was obtained by requesting tailor-made aggregations from the Statistic Bureau.

References

  1. 1.

    Sassen, S. The Global City (Wiley, 1991).

  2. 2.

    Sassen, S. The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo 2nd edn (Princeton Univ. Press, 2001).

  3. 3.

    Hamnett, C. Social polarisation in global cities: theory and evidence. Urban Stud. 31, 401–424 (1994).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Hamnett, C. Socio-economic change in London: professionalization not polarization. Built Environ. 20, 192–203 (1994).

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Butler, T., Hamnett, C. & Ramsden, M. Inward and upward: marking out social class change in London, 1981—2001. Urban Stud. 45, 67–88 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Davidson, M. & Wyly, E. Same but different: within London’s ‘static’ class structure and the missing antagonism. City 19, 247–257 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Manley, D. & Johnston, R. London: a dividing city, 2001–11? City 18, 633–643 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Hill, R. C. & Kim, J. W. Global cities and developmental states: New York, Tokyo and Seoul. Urban Stud. 37, 2167–2195 (2000).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Tammaru, T., Marcińczak, S., van Ham, M. & Musterd, S. Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West (Routledge, 2016).

  10. 10.

    Maloutas, T. & Fujita, K (eds) Residential Segregation in Comparative Perspective: Making Sense of Contextual Diversity (Ashgate, 2012).

  11. 11.

    Musterd, S. & Ostendorf, W. The changing distribution of incomes in Dutch cities: myth and reality. GeoJournal 46, 29–38 (1998).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Marcińczak, S. et al. Patterns of socioeconomic segregation in the capital cities of fast-track reforming postsocialist countries. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geographers 105, 183–202 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Hulchanski, J. D. The Three Cities Within Toronto: Income Polarization Among Toronto’s Neighbourhoods, 1970-2005 (Univ. of Toronto, 2010).

  14. 14.

    Atkinson, R. Limited exposure: Social concealment, mobility and engagement with public space by the super-rich in London. Environ. Plan. A 48, 1302–1307 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Atkinson, R. & Ho, H.-K. in Research Handbook on Urban Segregation (ed. S. Musterd) (Edward Elgar, 2019).

  16. 16.

    Johnston, R., Jones, K., Manley, D. & Owen, D. Macro-scale stability with micro-scale diversity: modelling changing ethnic minority residential segregation—London 2001–2011. Trans. Inst. Br. Geographers 41, 389–402 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Cunningham, N. & Savage, M. An intensifying and elite city: new geographies of social class and inequality in contemporary London. City 21, 25–46 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Hamnett, C. Spatially displaced demand and the changing geography of house prices in London, 1995–2006. Hous. Stud. 24, 301–320 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Leal, J. & Sorando, D. in Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West (eds Tammaru, T. et al.) 214–237 (Routledge, 2016).

  20. 20.

    Maloutas, T. in Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West (eds Tammaru, T. et al.) 156–185 (Routledge, 2016).

  21. 21.

    Hirayama, Y. in Cities and the Super-Rich: Real Estate, Elite Practices and Urban Political Economies (eds Forrest, R. et al.) (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016).

  22. 22.

    Kogan, I. New immigrants—old disadvantage patterns? Labour market integration of recent immigrants into Germany. Int. Migr. 49, 91–117 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Ruiz, I. & Vargas-Silva, C. Differences in labour market outcomes between natives, refugees and other migrants in the UK. J. Econ. Geogr. 18, 855–885 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Fullin, G. & Reyneri, E. (eds) Immigrants in West European labour markets: a dynamic approach. Int. J. Compar. Sociol. 52, 247–263 (2011).

  25. 25.

    Doeringer, P. & Piore, M. Internal Labor Markets and Manpower Analysis (Lexington, 1972).

  26. 26.

    Hochstenbach, C. & Musterd, S. Gentrification and the suburbanization of poverty: changing urban geographies through boom and bust periods. Urban Geogr. 39, 26–53 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Lees, L. Super-gentrification: the case of Brooklyn Heights, New York City. Urban Stud. 40, 2487–2492 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Butler, T. & Lees, L. Super-gentrification in Barnsbury, London globalization and gentrifying global elites at the neighbourhood level. Trans. Inst. Br. Geogr. 31, 467–487 (2006).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Beaverstock, J. V., Hubbard, P. & Short, J. R. Getting away with it? Exposing the geographies of the super-rich. Geoforum 35, 401–407 (2004).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Petsimeris, P. & Rimoldi, S. in Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West (eds Tammaru, T. et al.) 186–213 (Routledge, 2016).

  31. 31.

    Tammaru, T., Aunap, R., Marcińczak, S., van Ham, M. & Janssen, H. Relationship between income inequality and residential segregation between socioeconomic groups. Reg. Stud. 54, 450–461 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Guttentag, D., Smith, S., Potwarka, L. & Havitz, M. Why tourists choose Airbnb: a motivation-based segmentation study. J. Travel Res. 57, 342–359 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Van Kempen, R. & Murie, A. The new divided city: changing patterns in European cities. Tijdschr. Econ. Soc. Geogr. 100, 377–398 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Fujita, K. & Hill, R. C. in Residential Segregation in Comparative Perspective: Making Sense of Contextual Diversity (eds Maloutas, T. & Fujita, K.) 54–86 (Ashgate, 2012).

  35. 35.

    Nieuwenhuis, J., Tammaru, T., van Ham, M., Hedman, L. & Manley, D. Does segregation reduce socio-spatial mobility? Evidence from four European countries with different inequality and segregation contexts. Urban Stud. 57, 176–197 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Esping-Andersen, G. The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (Princeton Univ. Press, 1990).

  37. 37.

    United Nations Human Settlements Programme. State of the World’s Cities 2008/2009—Harmonious Cities (Earthscan, 2008).

  38. 38.

    Adomaitis, K. The world’s largest cities are the most unequal. Euromonitor International https://blog.euromonitor.com/the-worlds-largest-cities-are-the-most-unequal/ (2013).

  39. 39.

    CivicDashboards. Gini Index for New York, NY http://www.civicdashboards.com/compare (OpenGov, 2015).

  40. 40.

    Hiramoto, S., Katayama, S., Cho, K. & Matsutani, S. Tokyo’s large-scale urban redevelopment projects and their processes. 43rd ISOCARP Congress http://www.isocarp.net/Data/case_studies/1040.pdf (2007).

  41. 41.

    Tsukamoto, T. Neoliberalization of the developmental state: Tokyo’s bottom‐up politics and state rescaling in Japan. Int. J. Urban Reg. Res. 36, 71–89 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Waley, P. Pencilling Tokyo into the map of neoliberal urbanism. Cities 32, 43–50 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Marcińczak, S., Musterd, S., van Ham, M. & Tammaru, T. in Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West (eds Tammaru, T. et al.) 358–382 (Routledge, 2016).

  44. 44.

    Andersson, R. & Kährik, A. in Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West (eds Tammaru, T. et al.) 110–131 (Routledge, 2016).

  45. 45.

    Hamnett, C. & Butler, T. The changing ethnic structure of housing tenures in London, 1991—2001. Urban Stud. 47, 55–74 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Musterd, S., Marcińczak, S., van Ham, M. & Tammaru, T. Socioeconomic segregation in European capital cities. Increasing separation between poor and rich. Urban Geogr. 38, 1062–1083 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Iceland, J. Race and Ethnicity in America (Univ. of California, 2017).

  48. 48.

    Machimura, T. Symbolic use of globalization in urban politics in Tokyo. Int. J. Urban Reg. Res. 22, 183–194 (1998).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Mellor, E. F. Weekly earnings in 1983: a look at more than 200 occupations. Monthly Lab. Rev. 108, 54–59 (1985).

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Ilg, R. E. & Haugen, S. E. Earnings and Employment Trends in the 1990s. Monthly Lab. Rev. 123, 21–33 (2000).

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Routh, G. Occupation and Pay in Great Britain 1906–79 (Palgrave Macmillan, 1980).

  52. 52.

    Reardon, S. & Bischoff, K. Income inequality and income segregation. Am. J. Sociol. 116, 1092–1153 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Duncan, O. & Duncan, B. Residential distribution and occupational stratification. Am. J. Sociol. 60, 493–503 (1955).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Reardon, S. & Firebaugh, G. Measures of multi-group segregation. Sociol. Methodol. 32, 33–67 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Manson, S., Schroeder, J., Van Riper, D. & Ruggles, S. IPUMS National Historical Geographic Information System Version 14.0 (IPUMS, 2019); https://ipums.org/projects/ipums-nhgis/d050.v14.0

  56. 56.

    University of Edinburgh, Census Support. Census Support Digitised Boundary Data, 1840– and Postcode Directories, 1980– (UK Data Service, 2008); https://doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-5819-1

Download references

Acknowledgements

The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program (FP/2007-2013), European Research Council Grant Agreement no. 615159 (European Research Council Consolidator Grant DEPRIVEDHOODS, Socio-spatial inequality, deprived neighbourhoods, and neighbourhood effects), from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI Grant Number JP17K13584, from the Estonian Research Council (PUT PRG306, Infotechnological Mobility Laboratory, RITA-Ränne), and from TU Delft (visiting professorship of T.T.). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

M.v.H., M.U., T.T., D.M. and H.J. contributed equally to the conception of the work, the interpretation of the data and the drafting of the work. M.v.H. and T.T. designed the study and wrote its conceptual and discussion sections. M.U. was responsible for handing the data, executing the analysis and making the figures. M.v.H., as the corresponding author, was responsible for the revisions of the manuscript with the help of all other authors.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Maarten van Ham.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Peer review information Primary Handling Editors: Aisha Bradshaw; Mary Elizabeth Sutherland.

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Methods, Supplementary Discussion, Supplementary Figs. 1–3, Supplementary Tables 1 and 2 and Supplementary References.

Reporting Summary

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

van Ham, M., Uesugi, M., Tammaru, T. et al. Changing occupational structures and residential segregation in New York, London and Tokyo. Nat Hum Behav (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-0927-5

Download citation

Search

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing