a, Participants’ values for Spearman correlation (Fisher’s z transformed) of the relationship between target word memorability estimates and the response times of retrieved words and b, average memorability of intruded words across participants in the iEEG sample. Each dot indicates a value from a single participant, with the whiskers indicating the within-participant standard error across trials. The dot sizes are weighted by the overall within-participant standard error, with a larger size indicating smaller variability. The data are sorted by participant-specific estimates separately for (a) and (b). The random-effect mean estimates (in red) and their standard errors (in green) between participants are plotted at the bottom, which are identical to the bars shown in Fig. 3. Although there is a noisy estimate in (a) due to a low trial count (11 trials), inclusion or exclusion of this participant’s data does not substantially impact the mean estimate and significant testing across participants.