Underestimating digital media harm

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Fig. 1: Percentage of the MCS cohort with clinically relevant depressive symptoms as a function of social media use.
Fig. 2: Average linear r values between well-being and various factors in boys and girls from two datasets.


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Author information




J.M.T. developed the study concept, analysed the data and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. J.H., W.K.C. and T.E.J. provided crucial revisions.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jean M. Twenge.

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Competing interests

J.M.T., J.H., W.K.C. and T.E.J. have received speaking honoraria and consulting fees from non-profit and for-profit entities for presenting research.

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Extended data

Extended Data Fig. 1

Associations between internet use and well-being indicators, boys, Millennium Cohort Study (includes demographic controls).

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Twenge, J.M., Haidt, J., Joiner, T.E. et al. Underestimating digital media harm. Nat Hum Behav 4, 346–348 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-0839-4

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