Extended Data Fig. 1: Variance-dependent changes in error sensitivity are due to learning from error. | Nature Human Behaviour

Extended Data Fig. 1: Variance-dependent changes in error sensitivity are due to learning from error.

From: An implicit memory of errors limits human sensorimotor adaptation

Extended Data Fig. 1

We applied our analysis in Fig. 4A to the numerator (a, learning from error) and denominator (b, error) of Eq. (8). For this analysis, we sorted pairs of movements into different bins according to the size of the error on the first movement. For each bin in a, we calculated the total change in reach angle between the trial pairs (discounted by the retention factor a as in Eq. (8)). For each bin in b, we calculated the mean error that occurred on the first trial in each pair. We performed these analyses separately for the zero-variance group (black) and high-variance group (red) in Experiments 1, 4 and 6 (experiments where the retention factor, a, was measured). For a and b, we used a mixed-ANOVA followed by post-hoc Bonferroni-corrected two-sample t-tests. We found a similar statistical pattern in both insets (left: learning from error, mixed-ANOVA, between-subjects effect of variance, F(1,84) = 13.7, P < 0.001, \(\eta _p^2\) = 0.14; post-hoc Bonferroni-corrected two-sample t-tests, t(71) = 3.77, P = 0.0011, d = 0.69, 95% CI = [0.54,2.3] for 5–14°; t(71) = 3.77, P = 0.001, d = 0.76, 95% CI = [0.9,3.38] for 14–22°; t(71) = 1.53, P = 0.45, d = 0.35, 95% CI = [−0.52,2.08] for 22–30°; right: error magnitude, mixed-ANOVA, between-subjects effect of variance, F(1,84) = 19.2, P < 0.001, \(\eta _p^2\) = 0.19; post-hoc Bonferroni-corrected two-sample t-tests, t(71) = 4.65, P < 0.001, d = 0.92, 95% CI = [0.23,0.63] for 5–14°; t(71) = 5.04, P < 0.001, d = 1.15, 95% CI = [0.37,0.81] for 14–22°; t(71) = 0.5, P = 1.0, d = 0.06, 95% CI = [−0.29,0.39] for 22–30°). Error bars are mean ± SEM.

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