Four personality types may be neither robust nor exhaustive

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Data availability

Data are available from (Johnson-300 and Johnson-120) and (BBC-44).

Code accessibility

The code necessary to conduct the reported analysis is available on the Open Science Framework (


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Author information

J.-P.F. and C.S. analysed the data. J.-P.F., C.S., P.M. and M.Z. wrote the paper.

Correspondence to Jan-Philipp Freudenstein.

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Freudenstein, J., Strauch, C., Mussel, P. et al. Four personality types may be neither robust nor exhaustive. Nat Hum Behav 3, 1045–1046 (2019).

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