Committees with implicit biases promote fewer women when they do not believe gender bias exists

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Whether gender bias contributes to women’s under-representation in scientific fields is still controversial. Past research is limited by relying on explicit questionnaire ratings in mock-hiring scenarios, thereby ignoring the potential role of implicit gender bias in the real world. We examine the interactive effect of explicit and implicit gender biases on promotion decisions made by scientific evaluation committees representing the whole scientific spectrum in the course of an annual nationwide competition for elite research positions. Findings reveal that committees with strong implicit gender biases promoted fewer women at year 2 (when committees were not reminded of the study) relative to year 1 (when the study was announced) if those committees did not explicitly believe that external barriers hold women back. When committees believed that women face external barriers, implicit biases did not predict selecting more men over women. This finding highlights the importance of educating evaluative committees about gender biases.

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Fig. 1: Gender asymmetry within each academic discipline in the year before the present study, and a timeline of the study.

Data availability

Most of the data supporting the findings of this study at the committee level are available within the paper (and its Supplementary Information files). The entire dataset that supports the findings of this study is available from the Open Science Framework repository ( Individual-level data are available on request from the authors.

Code availability

The code used to perform the primary analyses of the study is available from the corresponding authors upon request.


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We thank S. Heine, E. Uhlmann, S. Spencer, W. Hall, J. Nezlek and V. Valian for providing valuable input on an earlier version of the manuscript and/or the analyses. Financial support was provided by the Mission pour la Place des Femmes au CNRS (the CNRS Mission for Women’s Integration) and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (895-2017-1025; Canada). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. This work benefited greatly from technical support provided by the CNRS Mission for Women’s Integration. We thank A. Greenwald, N. Sriram and the other members of Project Implicit for efficient technical assistance on the IAT.

Author information

I.R., P.H. and C.T.-B. designed the study. I.R., P.H. and C.T.-B. performed the study with technical assistance from A.N.; I.R. and T.S. analysed the data. I.R., C.T.-B. and P.H. supervised the project. I.R., P.H. and T.S. wrote the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.

Correspondence to Isabelle Régner or Pascal Huguet.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Peer review information: Primary Handling Editor: Stavroula Kousta.

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Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Tables 2–4.

Reporting Summary

Supplementary Table 1

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