Scientific research on consciousness is critical to multiple scientific, clinical, and ethical issues. The growth of the field could also be beneficial to several areas including neurology and mental health research. To achieve this goal, we need to set funding priorities carefully and address problems such as job creation and potential media misrepresentation.

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Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Philosophy, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France

    • Matthias Michel
  2. Department of Psychology and Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Champaign, Illinois, USA

    • Diane Beck
  3. Department of Philosophy, New York University, New York, New York, USA

    • Ned Block
  4. Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

    • Hal Blumenfeld
  5. Philosophy Program, LaGuardia Community College, The City University of New York, Long Island City, New York, USA

    • Richard Brown
  6. School of Psychology, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand

    • David Carmel
  7. Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York, USA

    • Marisa Carrasco
  8. Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

    • Mazviita Chirimuuta
  9. Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

    • Marvin Chun
  10. Center for Cognition & Neurosciences, Université libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium

    • Axel Cleeremans
  11. Chair of Experimental Cognitive Psychology, College de France, Paris, France

    • Stanislas Dehaene
  12. Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), INSERM, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, NeuroSpin center, Gif/Yvette, France

    • Stanislas Dehaene
  13. Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging, University College London, London, UK

    • Stephen M. Fleming
    •  & Chris Frith
  14. Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK

    • Patrick Haggard
  15. Neuroscience Institute, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, USA

    • Biyu J. He
  16. All Souls College and Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

    • Cecilia Heyes
  17. The Brain and Mind Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada

    • Melvyn A. Goodale
  18. School of Philosophy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK

    • Liz Irvine
  19. Department of Decoded Neurofeedback, Computational Neuroscience Laboratories, Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International, Kyoto, Japan

    • Mitsuo Kawato
  20. Department of Psychology, University of Durham, Durham, UK

    • Robert Kentridge
  21. Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, New York, United States

    • Jean-Remi King
  22. Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt, Germany

    • Jean-Remi King
  23. Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, USA

    • Robert T. Knight
  24. Brain and Consciousness group (ENS, EHESS, CNRS), Département d’Études Cognitives, École Normale Supérieure - PSL Research University, Paris, France

    • Sid Kouider
  25. Amsterdam Brain and Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    • Victor Lamme
  26. School of Psychological Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

    • Dominique Lamy
  27. Department of Psychology and Brain Research Institute, UCLA, Los Angeles, USA

    • Hakwan Lau
  28. Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

    • Hakwan Lau
  29. State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, HKU, Hong Kong, China

    • Hakwan Lau
  30. Coma Science Group, GIGA Consciousness, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium

    • Steven Laureys
  31. Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York, USA

    • Joseph LeDoux
  32. Institute of Philosophy of Mind and Cognition, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan

    • Ying-Tung Lin
  33. Department of Sociology, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA

    • Kayuet Liu
  34. State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA

    • Stephen L. Macknik
    •  & Susana Martinez-Conde
  35. Center for Consciousness Science, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

    • George A. Mashour
  36. Department of Neurology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA

    • Lucia Melloni
  37. Department of Philosophy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

    • Lisa Miracchi
  38. Department of Philosophy and Institute of Cognitive Science, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

    • Myrto Mylopoulos
  39. PICNIC Lab ICM INSERM, U1127, Paris, France

    • Lionel Naccache
  40. The Brain & Mind Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada

    • Adrian M. Owen
  41. Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

    • Richard E. Passingham
  42. Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA

    • Luiz Pessoa
  43. Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Riverside, California, USA

    • Megan A. K. Peters
  44. School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    • Dobromir Rahnev
  45. Psychology and Biology, Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, New York, USA

    • Tony Ro
  46. Philosophy and Cognitive Science, Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, New York, USA

    • David Rosenthal
  47. Department of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA

    • Yuka Sasaki
  48. Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, Université Paris Descartes, CNRS, Paris, France

    • Claire Sergent
  49. Instituto de Cálculo, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    • Guillermo Solovey
  50. Department of Neurology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York, USA

    • Nicholas D. Schiff
  51. Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK

    • Anil Seth
  52. Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, INSERM, École Normale Supérieure - PSL Research University, Paris, France

    • Catherine Tallon-Baudry
  53. Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands

    • Marco Tamietto
  54. Department of Psychology, University of Torino, Torino, Italy

    • Marco Tamietto
  55. Psychology Department, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA

    • Frank Tong
  56. Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    • Simon van Gaal
  57. Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

    • Alexandra Vlassova
  58. Department of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA

    • Takeo Watanabe
  59. Department of Philosophy, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, USA

    • Josh Weisberg
  60. Institute of Philosophy of Mind and Cognition, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan

    • Karen Yan
  61. Department of System Neuroscience, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan

    • Masatoshi Yoshida

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Contributions

The manuscript was written primarily by M.M., H.L., and S.M.F., after taking into account multiple rounds of comments from all co-authors, who also jointly approved the final version of the manuscript. Except for first author M.M., authorship list is in alphabetical order.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Matthias Michel or Stephen M. Fleming or Hakwan Lau.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-019-0531-8

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