City-specific responsiveness of happiness to the change in air pollution is obtained by estimating equation (1) for each city individually and obtaining the city-specific coefficient of PM2.5. a, The geographical map of China shows the spatial distribution of city-specific responsiveness to pollution. The response sensibility index is lager in coastal cities than that of inland cities. b, A 3D surface plot showing the relationship between elasticity and income, and also between elasticity and city-specific air pollution level (median PM2.5 concentration in each city in our study period). The detailed regression results are presented in Supplementary Table 13.