Paranoia is the most common symptom of psychosis but paranoid concerns occur throughout the general population. Here, we argue for an evolutionary approach to paranoia across the spectrum of severity that accounts for its complex social phenomenology — including the perception of conspiracy and selective identification of perceived persecutors — and considers how it can be understood in light of our evolved social cognition. We argue that the presence of coalitions and coordination between groups in competitive situations could favour psychological mechanisms that detect, anticipate and avoid social threats. Our hypothesis makes testable predictions about the environments in which paranoia should be most common as well as the developmental trajectory of paranoia across the lifespan. We suggest that paranoia should not solely be viewed as a pathological symptom of a mental disorder but also as a part of a normally functioning human psychology.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Social Justice Research Open Access 28 September 2021
Translational Psychiatry Open Access 05 July 2020
Subscribe to Nature+
Get immediate online access to the entire Nature family of 50+ journals
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $9.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Dunbar, R. I. M. & Shultz, S. Why are there so many explanations for primate brain evolution? Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 372, 20160244 (2017).
Holekamp, K. E. & Benson-Amram, S. The evolution of intelligence in mammalian carnivores. Interface Focus 7, 20160108 (2017).
Emery, N. J., Seed, A. M., von Bayern, A. M. P. & Clayton, N. S. Cognitive adaptations of social bonding in birds. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 362, 489–505 (2007).
Holekamp, K. E., Dantzer, B., Stricker, G., Yoshida, K. C. S. & Benson-Amram, S. Brains, brawn and sociality: a hyaena’s tale. Anim. Behav. 103, 237–248 (2015).
De Waal, F. Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex Among Apes (John Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, 2007).
Clayton, N. S. & Emery, N. J. The social life of corvids. Curr. Biol. 17, R652–R656 (2007).
Paz-y-Mino, G., Bond, A. B., Kamil, A. C. & Balda, R. P. Pinyon jays use transitive inference to predict social dominance. Nature 430, 778–781 (2004).
Bergman, T. J., Beehner, J. C., Cheney, D. L. & Seyfarth, R. M. Hierarchical classification by rank and kinship in baboons. Science 302, 1234–1236 (2003).
Krupenye, C., Kano, F., Hirata, S., Call, J. & Tomasello, M. Great apes anticipate that other individuals will act according to false beliefs. Science 354, 110–114 (2016).
Clayton, N. S. Social cognition by food caching corvids: the western scrub-jay as a natural psychologist. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 362, 507–522 (2007).
Green, M. J. & Phillips, M. L. Social threat perception and the evolution of paranoia. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 28, 333–342 (2004).
Veras, A. B. et al. Paranoid delusional disorder follows social anxiety disorder in a long-term case series: evolutionary perspective. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 203, 477–479 (2015).
Freeman, D. & Garety, P. A. Comments on the content of persecutory delusions: Does the definition need clarification? Br. J. Clin. Psychol. 39, 407–414 (2000).
Freeman, P. D. Persecutory delusions: a cognitive perspective on understanding and treatment. Lancet Psychiatry 3, 685–692 (2016).
Jack, A. H. & Egan, V. Childhood bullying, paranoid thinking and the misappraisal of social threat: trouble at school. School Ment. Health 10, 26–34 (2017).
Bebbington, P. E. et al. The structure of paranoia in the general population. Br. J. Psychiatry 202, 419–427 (2013).
Bell, V. & O’Driscoll, C. The network structure of paranoia in the general population. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 53, 737–744 (2018).
Elahi, A., Algorta, G. P., Varese, F., McIntyre, J. C. & Bentall, R. P. Do paranoid delusions exist on a continuum with subclinical paranoia? A multi-method taxometric study. Schizophr. Res. 190, 77–81 (2017).
van Os, J., Linscott, R. J., Myin-Germeys, I., Delespaul, P. & Krabbendam, L. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the psychosis continuum: evidence for a psychosis proneness–persistence–impairment model of psychotic disorder. Psychol. Med. 39, 179–195 (2009).
Taylor, M. J., Freeman, D. & Ronald, A. Dimensional psychotic experiences in adolescence: evidence from a taxometric study of a community-based sample. Psychiatry Res. 241, 35–42 (2016).
David, A. S. Why we need more debate on whether psychotic symptoms lie on a continuum with normality. Psychol. Med. 40, 1935–1942 (2010).
Freeman, D. et al. Concomitants of paranoia in the general population. Psychol. Med. 41, 923–936 (2011).
Startup, H., Freeman, D. & Garety, P. A. Persecutory delusions and catastrophic worry in psychosis: developing the understanding of delusion distress and persistence. Behav. Res. Ther. 45, 523–537 (2007).
Kahn-Greene, E. T., Killgore, D. B., Kamimori, G. H., Balkin, T. J. & Killgore, W. D. S. The effects of sleep deprivation on symptoms of psychopathology in healthy adults. Sleep Med. 8, 215–221 (2007).
Catone, G., Marwaha, S., Kuipers, E. & Lennox, B. Bullying victimisation and risk of psychotic phenomena: analyses of British national survey data. Lancet Psychiatry 2, 618–624 (2015).
Bird, J. C., Waite, F., Rowsell, E., Fergusson, E. C. & Freeman, D. Cognitive, affective, and social factors maintaining paranoia in adolescents with mental health problems: longitudinal study. Psychiatry Res. 257, 34–39 (2017).
Bentall, R. P., Wickham, S., Shevlin, M. & Varese, F. Do specific early-life adversities lead to specific symptoms of psychosis? A Study from the 2007 The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Schizophr. Bull. 38, 734–740 (2012).
McLean, B. F., Mattiske, J. K. & Balzan, R. P. Association of the jumping to conclusions and evidence integration biases with delusions in psychosis: a detailed meta-analysis. Schizophr. Bull. 43, 344–354 (2017).
Buchy, L., Woodward, T. & Liotti, M. A cognitive bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE) is associated with schizotypy. Schizophr. Res. 90, 334–337 (2007).
Elliott, B., Joyce, E. & Shorvon, S. Delusions, illusions and hallucinations in epilepsy: 2. Complex phenomena and psychosis. Epilepsy Res. 85, 172–186 (2009).
Fujii, D. & Ahmed, I. Characteristics of psychotic disorder due to traumatic brain injury. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 14, 130–140 (2002).
Koponen, S. et al. Axis I and II psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury: a 30-year follow-up study. Am. J. Psychiatry 159, 1315–1321 (2002).
Van Assche, L. et al. The neuropsychological profile and phenomenology of late onset psychosis: a cross-sectional study on the differential diagnosis of very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis, dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer’s type dementia with psychosis. Arch. Clin. Neuropsychol. 10, https://doi.org/10.1093/arclin/acy034 (2018).
Bersani, G. & Prevete, E. Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) use in severe mental illness (SMI) patients: potential changes in the phenomenology of psychiatric diseases. Hum. Psychopharmacol. Clin. Exp. 32, e2591 (2017).
McKetin, R., Baker, A. L., Dawe, S., Voce, A. & Lubman, D. I. Differences in the symptom profile of methamphetamine-related psychosis and primary psychotic disorders. Psychiatry Res. 251, 349–354 (2017).
Quinn, C. A., Wilson, H., Cockshaw, W., Barkus, E. & Hides, L. Development and validation of the cannabis experiences questionnaire — intoxication effects checklist (CEQ-I) short form. Schizophr. Res. 189, 91–96 (2017).
Nesse, R. M. in The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology (ed. Buss, D.) 903–929 (John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2005).
Boyer, P., Firat, R. & van Leeuwen, F. Safety, threat, and stress in intergroup relations. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 10, 434–450 (2015).
Oliver, J. E. & Wood, T. J. Conspiracy theories and the paranoid style(s) of mass opinion. Am. J. Polit. Sci. 58, 952–966 (2014).
van Prooijen, J. W. & van Vugt, M. Conspiracy theories: evolved functions and psychological mechanisms. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 13, 770–788 (2018).
Douglas, K. M., Sutton, R. M. & Cichocka, A. The psychology of conspiracy theories. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 26, 538–542 (2017).
Harper, D. J. Histories of suspicion in a time of conspiracy: a reflection on Aubrey Lewis’s history of paranoia. Hist. Hum. Sci. 7, 89–109 (1994).
Andreasen, N. C. SAPS — Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (University of Iowa, Iowa City, 1984).
Oyebode, F. Sims’ Symptoms in the Mind (Saunders Elsevier, Edinburgh, 2008).
Cameron, N. The paranoid pseudo-community revisited. Am. J. Sociol. 65, 52–58 (1959).
Kim, K. I. et al. Schizophrenic delusions among Koreans, Korean-Chinese and Chinese: a transcultural study. Int. J. Soc. Psychiatry 39, 190–199 (1993).
Stompe, T. et al. Comparison of delusions among schizophrenics in Austria and in Pakistan. Psychopathology 32, 225–234 (1999).
Green, C. et al. Content and affect in persecutory delusions. Br. J. Clin. Psychol. 45, 561–577 (2010).
Boissy, A. Fear and fearfulness in animals. Q. Rev. Biol. 70, 165–191 (1995).
Smith, B. R. & Blumstein, D. T. Fitness consequences of personality: a meta-analysis. Behav. Ecol. 19, 448–455 (2008).
Sih, A. & Del Giudice, M. Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 367, 2762–2772 (2012).
Haselton, M. G. & Nettle, D. The paranoid optimist: an integrative evolutionary model of cognitive biases. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 10, 47–66 (2006).
Nesse, R. M. The smoke detector principle. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 935, 75–85 (2001).
Brosnan, S. F., Tone, E. B. & Williams, L. in The Evolution of Psychopathology (eds Shackelford, T. & Zeigler-Hill, V.) 93–116 (Springer, Cham, 2017).
Miloyan, B., Bulley, A. & Suddendorf, T. Episodic foresight and anxiety: proximate and ultimate perspectives. Br. J. Clin. Psychol. 55, 4–22 (2016).
Miloyan, B., Bulley, A. & Suddendorf, T. Anxiety: here and beyond. Emot. Rev. 10, https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073917738570 (2018).
Rodebaugh, T. L., Klein, S. R., Yarkoni, T. & Langer, J. K. Measuring social anxiety related interpersonal constraint with the flexible iterated prisoner’s dilemma. J. Anxiety Disord. 25, 427–436 (2011).
Rodebaugh, T. L. et al. The behavioral economics of social anxiety disorder reveal a robust effect for interpersonal traits. Behav. Res. Ther. 95, 139–147 (2017).
Tone, E. B. et al. Social anxiety and social behavior: a test of predictions from an evolutionary model. Clin. Psychol. Sci. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702618794923 (2018).
Harcourt, A. H. & de Waal, F. Coalitions and Alliances in Humans and Other Animals (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 1992).
Bissonnette, A. et al. Coalitions in theory and reality: a review of pertinent variables and processes. Behaviour 152, 1–56 (2015).
Wrangham, R. W. & Glowacki, L. Intergroup aggression in chimpanzees and war in nomadic hunter-gatherers. Hum. Nat. 23, 5–29 (2012).
Gershman, B. Witchcraft beliefs and the erosion of social capital: evidence from sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. J. Dev. Econ. 120, 182–208 (2016).
Mace, R. et al. Population structured by witchcraft beliefs. Nat. Hum. Behav. 2, 39–44 (2018).
Vaillancourt, T. Do human females use indirect aggression as an intrasexual competition strategy? Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 368, 20130080 (2013).
Hess, N. H. & Hagen, E. H. Sex differences in indirect aggression: psychological evidence from young adults. Evol. Hum. Behav. 27, 231–245 (2006).
Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L. in Human Morality and Sociality: Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives (ed. Høgh-Olesen, H.) 91–234 (Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2010).
Pietraszewski, D. How the mind sees coalitional and group conflict: the evolutionary invariances of n-person conflict dynamics. Evol. Hum. Behav. 37, 470–480 (2016).
Saalfeld, V., Ramadan, Z., Bell, V. & Raihani, N. J. Experimentally induced social threat increases paranoid thinking. R. Soc. Open Sci. 5, 180569 (2018).
Greenburgh, A., Bell, V. & Raihani, N. J. Paranoia and conspiracy: group cohesion increases harmful intent attribution in the trust game. Preprint at PsyArXiv.com https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/mgzjr (2018).
Tajfel, H. Social psychology of intergroup relations. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 33, 1–39 (1982).
Liberman, Z., Woodward, A. L. & Kinzler, K. D. The origins of social categorization. Trends Cogn. Sci. 21, 556–568 (2017).
Dunham, Y. Mere membership. Trends Cogn. Sci. 22, 780–793 (2018).
Otten, S. The minimal group paradigm and its maximal impact in research on social categorization. Curr. Opin. Psychol. 11, 85–89 (2016).
Wood, J. & Dennard, S. Gang membership: links to violence exposure, paranoia, PTSD, anxiety, and forced control of behavior in prison. Psychiatry 80, 30–41 (2017).
Pizarro, J., Silver, R. C. & Prause, J. Physical and mental health costs of traumatic war experiences among civil war veterans. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 63, 193–200 (2006).
Kaštelan, A. et al. Psychotic symptoms in combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Mil. Med. 172, 273–277 (2007).
Ember, C. R., Adem, T. A. & Skoggard, I. Risk, uncertainty, and violence in Eastern Africa. Hum. Nat. 24, 33–58 (2012).
Anderson, F. & Freeman, D. Socioeconomic status and paranoia. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 201, 698–702 (2013).
Wrangham, R. W. Evolution of coalitionary killing. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 110, 1–30 (1999).
Johnson, D. D. P. & MacKay, N. J. Fight the power: Lanchester’s laws of combat in human evolution. Evol. Hum. Behav. 36, 152–163 (2015).
Gayer-Anderson, C. & Morgan, C. Social networks, support and early psychosis: a systematic review. Epidemiol. Psychiatr. Sci. 22, 131–146 (2013).
Wickham, S., Taylor, P., Shevlin, M. & Bentall, R. P. The impact of social deprivation on paranoia, hallucinations, mania and depression: the role of discrimination social support, stress and trust. PLoS ONE 9, e105140 (2014).
Shaikh, M. et al. Perceived ethnic discrimination and persecutory paranoia in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis. Psychiatry Res. 241, 309–314 (2016).
Bosqui, T. J., Hoy, K. & Shannon, C. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the ethnic density effect in psychotic disorders. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 49, 519–529 (2014).
Kessler, R. C. et al. Age of onset of mental disorders: a review of recent literature. Curr. Opin. Psychiatry 20, 359–364 (2007).
Geary, D. Evolution and development of boys’ social behavior. Dev. Rev. 23, 444–470 (2003).
Glowacki, L. et al. Formation of raiding parties for intergroup violence is mediated by social network structure. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 12114–12119 (2016).
Del Giudice, M., Angeleri, R. & Manera, V. The juvenile transition: a developmental switch point in human life history. Dev. Rev. 29, 1–31 (2009).
Cook, C. R., Williams, K. R., Guerra, N. G., Kim, T. E. & Sadek, S. Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: a meta-analytic investigation. Sch. Psychol. Q. 25, 65–83 (2010).
Volk, A. A., Camilleri, J. A., Dane, A. V. & Marini, Z. A. Is adolescent bullying an evolutionary adaptation? Aggress. Behav. 38, 222–238 (2012).
Blakemore, S. J. Avoiding social risk in adolescence. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 27, 116–122 (2018).
Spielberg, J. M., Olino, T. M., Forbes, E. E. & Dahl, R. E. Exciting fear in adolescence: Does pubertal development alter threat processing? Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 8, 86–95 (2014).
Silk, J. S. et al. Increased neural response to peer rejection associated with adolescent depression and pubertal development. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 9, 1798–1807 (2014).
Paus, T., Keshavan, M. & Giedd, J. N. Why do many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence? Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 9, 947–957 (2008).
Fawcett, T. W. & Frankenhuis, W. E. Adaptive explanations for sensitive windows in development. Front. Zool. 12 (Suppl. 1), S3 (2015).
Frankenhuis, W. E. & de Weerth, C. Does early-life exposure to stress shape or impair cognition? Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 22, 407–412 (2013).
Frankenhuis, W. E., Nettle, D. & McNamara, J. M. Echoes of early life: recent insights from mathematical modeling. Child Dev. 6, 769–715 (2018).
English, S., Browning, L. E. & Raihani, N. J. Developmental plasticity and social specialization in cooperative societies. Anim. Behav. 106, 37–42 (2015).
Blakemore, S. J. Development of the social brain during adolescence. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 61, 40–49 (2008).
Fuhrmann, D., Knoll, L. J. & Blakemore, S. J. Adolescence as a sensitive period of brain development. Trends Cogn. Sci. 19, 558–566 (2015).
Panchanathan, K. & Frankenhuis, W. E. The evolution of sensitive periods in a model of incremental development. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 283, 20152439 (2016).
Frankenhuis, W. E. & Panchanathan, K. Individual differences in developmental plasticity may result from stochastic sampling. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 6, 336–347 (2011).
Wakefield, J. C. The concept of mental disorder. Am. Psychol. 42, 373–388 (1992).
Wakefield, J. C. Evolutionary versus prototype analyses of the concept of disorder. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 108, 374–399 (1999).
Bateson, M., Brilot, B. & Nettle, D. Anxiety: an evolutionary approach. Can. J. Psychiatry 56, 707–715 (2011).
Nettle, D. & Bateson, M. The evolutionary origins of mood and its disorders. Curr. Biol. 22, R712–R721 (2012).
Campbell, M. M. et al. The content of delusions in a sample of South African Xhosa people with schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry 17, 41 (2017).
Tinbergen, N. On aims and methods of ethology. Ethology 20, 410–433 (1963).
Mayr, E. Cause and effect in biology. Science 134, 1501–1506 (1961).
Mayr, E. Proximate and ultimate causations. Biol. Philos. 8, 93–94 (1993).
Scott-Phillips, T. C., Dickins, T. E. & West, S. A. Evolutionary theory and the ultimate-proximate distinction in the human behavioral sciences. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 6, 38–47 (2011).
Penn, D. C. & Povinelli, D. J. Causal cognition in human and nonhuman animals: a comparative, critical review. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 58, 97–118 (2007).
Penn, D. C. & Povinelli, D. J. On the lack of evidence that non-human animals possess anything remotely resembling a ‘theory of mind’. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 362, 731–744 (2007).
Penn, D. C., Holyoak, K. J. & Povinelli, D. J. Darwin’s mistake: explaining the discontinuity between human and nonhuman minds. Behav. Brain Sci. 31, 109–130 (2008).
Stuart-Fox, M. The origins of causal cognition in early hominins. Biol. Philos. 30, 247–266 (2014).
Johnson, D. D. P., Blumstein, D. T., Fowler, J. H. & Haselton, M. G. The evolution of error: error management, cognitive constraints, and adaptive decision-making biases. Trends Ecol. Evol. 28, 474–481 (2013).
McKay, R. & Efferson, C. The subtleties of error management. Evol. Hum. Behav. 31, 309–319 (2010).
McNamara, J. M., Trimmer, P. C., Eriksson, A., Marshall, J. A. R. & Houston, A. I. Environmental variability can select for optimism or pessimism. Ecol. Lett. 14, 58–62 (2011).
Marshall, J. A. R., Trimmer, P. C., Houston, A. I. & McNamara, J. M. On evolutionary explanations of cognitive biases. Trends Ecol. Evol. 28, 469–473 (2013).
Trimmer, P. C. Optimistic and realistic perspectives on cognitive biases. Curr. Opin. Behav. Sci. 12, 37–43 (2016).
McCullough, M. E., Kurzban, R. & Tabak, B. A. Cognitive systems for revenge and forgiveness. Behav. Brain Sci. 36, 1–15 (2013).
Clutton-Brock, T. H. & Parker, G. A. Punishment in animal societies. Nature 373, 209–216 (1995).
Raihani, N. J., Thornton, A. & Bshary, R. Punishment and cooperation in nature. Trends Ecol. Evol. 27, 288–295 (2012).
Robertson, T. E., Delton, A. W., Klein, S. B., Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. Keeping the benefits of group cooperation: domain-specific responses to distinct causes of social exclusion. Evol. Hum. Behav. 35, 472–480 (2014).
Feinberg, M., Willer, R. & Schultz, M. Gossip and ostracism promote cooperation in groups. Psychol. Sci. 25, 656–664 (2014).
Delton, A. W., Krasnow, M., Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. Evolution of direct reciprocity under uncertainty can explain human generosity in one-shot encounters. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13335–13340 (2011).
Zimmermann, J. & Efferson, C. One-shot reciprocity under error management is unbiased and fragile. Evol. Hum. Behav. 38, 39–47 (2017).
Ellett, L., Allen-Crooks, R., Stevens, A., Wildschut, T. & Chadwick, P. A paradigm for the study of paranoia in the general population: the prisoner’s dilemma game. Cogn. Emot. 27, 53–62 (2013).
Fett, A., Shergill, S. S., Joyce, D. W., Riedl, A. & Strobel, M. To trust or not to trust: the dynamics of social interaction in psychosis. Brain 135, 976–984 (2012).
Raihani, N. J. & Bell, V. Paranoia and the social representation of others: a large-scale game theory approach. Sci. Rep. 7, 4544 (2017).
Raihani, N. J. & Bell, V. Conflict and cooperation in paranoia: a large-scale behavioural experiment. Psychol. Med. 76, 1–11 (2017).
Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J. L. & Thaler, R. Fairness as a constraint on profit seeking: entitlements in the market. Am. Econ. Rev. 76, 728–741 (1986).
N.J.R. is funded by a Royal Society University Research Fellowship; V.B. is supported by a Wellcome Trust Seed Award in Science (200589/Z/16/Z). Thanks to P. Boyer, L. Barrett and W. Frankenhuis for helpful comments on an earlier draft. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Raihani, N.J., Bell, V. An evolutionary perspective on paranoia. Nat Hum Behav 3, 114–121 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-018-0495-0
This article is cited by
Social Justice Research (2022)
The Paradox of Paranoia: How One’s Own Self-Interested Unethical Behavior Can Spark Paranoia and Reduce Affiliative Behavior Toward Coworkers
Journal of Business Ethics (2022)
Nature Human Behaviour (2021)
Translational Psychiatry (2020)