Walesby, K. E., Harrison, J. K. & Russ, T. C. What big data could achieve in Scotland. J. R. Coll. Physicians Edinb. 47, 114–119 (2017).
Soni, J., Ansari, U., Sharma, D. & Soni, S. Predictive data mining for medical diagnosis: an overview of heart disease prediction. Int. J. Comput. Appl. 17, 43–48 (2011).
Hamada, T., Keum, N., Nishihara, R. & Ogino, S. Molecular pathological epidemiology: new developing frontiers of big data science to study etiologies and pathogenesis. J. Gastroenterol. 52, 265–275 (2017).
Hafferty, J. D., Smith, D. J. & McIntosh, A. M. Invited commentary on Stewart and Davis “‘Big data’in mental health research — current status and emerging possibilities”. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 52, 127–129 (2017).
Sudlow, C. et al. UK biobank: an open access resource for identifying the causes of a wide range of complex diseases of middle and old age. PLoS Med. 12, e1001779 (2015).
Davies, G. et al. Study of 300,486 individuals identifies 148 independent genetic loci influencing general cognitive function. Nat. Commun. 9, 2098 (2018).
Lencz, T. et al. Molecular genetic evidence for overlap between general cognitive ability and risk for schizophrenia: a report from the Cognitive Genomics consorTium (COGENT). Mol. Psychiatry 19, 168–174 (2014).
Gaziano, J. M. et al. Million Veteran Program: a mega-biobank to study genetic influences on health and disease. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 70, 214–223 (2016).
Nagai, A. et al. Overview of the BioBank Japan Project: study design and profile. J. Epidemiol. 27, S2–S8 (2017).
Herper, M. Illumina promises to sequence human genome for $100 — but not quite yet. Forbes https://www.forbes.com/sites/matthewherper/2017/01/09/illumina-promises-to-sequence-human-genome-for-100-but-not-quite-yet/#13a4d50d386d (2017).
Schatz, M. C. Biological data sciences in genome research. Genome Res. 25, 1417–1422 (2015).
Cheng, J., Tegge, A. N. & Baldi, P. Machine learning methods for protein structure prediction. IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 1, 41–49 (2008).
Montes, J., Gomez, E., Merchán-Pérez, A., DeFelipe, J. & Peña, J.-M. A machine learning method for the prediction of receptor activation in the simulation of synapses. PLoS ONE 8, e68888 (2013).
Ou-Yang, S.-s et al. Computational drug discovery. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 33, 1131–1140 (2012).
Immadisetty, K., Geffert, L. M., Surratt, C. K. & Madura, J. D. New design strategies for antidepressant drugs. Expert Opin. Drug Discov. 8, 1399–1414 (2013).
Miller, K. L. et al. Multimodal population brain imaging in the UK Biobank prospective epidemiological study. Nat. Neurosci. 19, 1523–1536 (2016).
Thompson, P. M. et al. The ENIGMA Consortium: large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data. Brain Imaging Behav. 8, 153–182 (2014).
Shi, Y. & Toga, A. Connectome imaging for mapping human brain pathways. Mol. Psychiatry 22, 1230–1240 (2017).
Gu, S. et al. Emergence of system roles in normative neurodevelopment. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 112, 13681–13686 (2015).
Christakou, A. et al. Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during sustained attention in youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and with autism. Mol. Psychiatry 18, 236–244 (2013).
Chang, X. et al. Altered default mode and fronto-parietal network subsystems in patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings. Brain Res. 1562, 87–99 (2014).
Schwindt, G. C. et al. Modulation of the default-mode network between rest and task in Alzheimer’s disease. Cereb. Cortex 23, 1685–1694 (2013).
Broyd, S. J. et al. Default-mode brain dysfunction in mental disorders: a systematic review. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 33, 279–296 (2009).
Xia, M. & He, Y. Functional connectomics from a “big data” perspective. NeuroImage 160, 152–167 (2017).
Van Horn, J. D. & Toga, A. W. Human neuroimaging as a “big data” science. Brain Imaging Behav. 8, 323–331 (2014).
Bidargaddi, N. et al. Digital footprints: facilitating large-scale environmental psychiatric research in naturalistic settings through data from everyday technologies. Mol. Psychiatry 22, 164–169 (2017).
Khan, Y., Ostfeld, A. E., Lochner, C. M., Pierre, A. & Arias, A. C. Monitoring of vital signs with flexible and wearable medical devices. Adv. Mater. 28, 4373–4395 (2016).
Selvam, A. P., Muthukumar, S., Kamakoti, V. & Prasad, S. A wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption lifestyle through ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in human sweat. Sci. Rep. 6, 23111 (2016).
Bradley, A. J. et al. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbance in bipolar disorder. Psychol. Med. 47, 1678–1689 (2017).
Knight, A. & Bidargaddi, N. Commonly available activity tracker apps and wearables as a mental health outcome indicator: a prospective observational cohort study among young adults with psychological distress. J. Affect. Disord. 236, 31–36 (2018).
Zafarani, R., Abbasi, M. A. & Liu, H. Social Media Mining: An Introduction (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2014).
Jackson, R. G. et al. Natural language processing to extract symptoms of severe mental illness from clinical text: the Clinical Record Interactive Search Comprehensive Data Extraction (CRIS-CODE) project. BMJ Open 7, e012012 (2017).
Ford, D. V. et al. The SAIL Databank: building a national architecture for e-health research and evaluation. BMC Health Serv. Res. 9, 157 (2009).
McIntosh, A. M. et al. Data science for mental health: a UK perspective on a global challenge. Lancet Psychiatry 3, 993–998 (2016).
Engel, G. The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science 196, 129–136 (1977).
Astell-Burt, T., Mitchell, R. & Hartig, T. The association between green space and mental health varies across the lifecourse. A longitudinal study. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 68, 578–583 (2014).
Gascon, M. et al. Mental health benefits of long-term exposure to residential green and blue spaces: a systematic review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12, 4354–4379 (2015).
Ruijsbroek, A. et al. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities. Int. J. Public Health 62, 1–11 (2017).
Chen, J. C. et al. Ambient air pollution and neurotoxicity on brain structure: evidence from women’s health initiative memory study. Ann. Neurol. 78, 466–476 (2015).
Miller, H. J. & Tolle, K. Big data for healthy cities: using location-aware technologies, open data and 3D urban models to design healthier built environments. Built Environ. 42, 441–456 (2016).
Inoue, T. et al. Does temperature or sunshine mediate the effect of latitude on affective temperaments? A study of 5 regions in Japan. J. Affect. Disord. 172, 141–145 (2015).
Roffman, J. L. et al. Randomized multicenter investigation of folate plus vitamin B12 supplementation in schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry 70, 481–489 (2013).
Milaneschi, Y. et al. The association between low vitamin D and depressive disorders. Mol. Psychiatry 19, 444–451 (2014).
Mokry, L. E. et al. Genetically decreased vitamin D and risk of Alzheimer disease. Neurology 87, 2567–2574 (2016).
Chen, H. et al. Living near major roads and the incidence of dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis: a population-based cohort study. Lancet 389, 718–726 (2017).
White, J. et al. Improving mental health through the regeneration of deprived neighborhoods: a natural experiment. Am. J. Epidemiol. 186, 473–480 (2017).
Pettit, S. et al. Variation in referral and access to new psychological therapy services by age: an empirical quantitative study. Br. J. Gen. Pract. 67, e453–e459 (2017).
Asthana, S. et al. Equity of utilisation of cardiovascular care and mental health services in England: a cohort-based cross-sectional study using small-area estimation. Health Serv. Deliv. Res. 14, 4 (2016).
Wu, C.-Y. et al. Evaluation of smoking status identification using electronic health records and open-text information in a large mental health case register. PLoS ONE 8, e74262 (2013).
Vuorilehto, M. S., Melartin, T. K., Rytsala, H. J. & Isometsa, E. T. Do characteristics of patients with major depressive disorder differ between primary and psychiatric care? Psychol. Med. 37, 893–904 (2007).
Demyttenaere, K. et al. Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization world mental health surveys. JAMA 291, 2581–2590 (2004).
John, A. et al. Case-finding for common mental disorders of anxiety and depression in primary care: an external validation of routinely collected data. BMC Med. Inform. Decis. Mak. 16, 35 (2016).
Davis, K. A. S. et al. Mental health in UK Biobank — implementation and results of an online questionnaire in 157,366 participants. Br. J. Psychiatry Open 4, 83–90 (2018).
Simon, G. E. et al. First presentation with psychotic symptoms in a population-based sample. Psychiatr. Serv. 68, 456–461 (2017).
John, A. et al. Recent trends in primary-care antidepressant prescribing to children and young people: an e-cohort study. Psychol. Med. 46, 3315–3327 (2016).
Aragona, M. in Alternative Perspectives on Psychiatric Validation: DSM, ICD, RDoC, and Beyond (eds Zachar, P., St. Stoyanov, D., Aragona, M. & Jablensky, A.) 27–46 (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 2014).
Reed, G. M. et al. The ICD-11 developmental field study of reliability of diagnoses of high-burden mental disorders: results among adult patients in mental health settings of 13 countries. World Psychiatry 17, 174–186 (2018).
Blumenthal-Barby, J. Psychiatry’s new manual (DSM-5): ethical and conceptual dimensions. J. Med. Ethics 40, 531–536 (2013).
Ghaemi, S. N. Nosologomania: DSM & Karl Jaspers’ critique of Kraepelin. Philos. Ethics Humanit. Med. 4, 10 (2009).
Davis, K. A., Sudlow, C. L. & Hotopf, M. Can mental health diagnoses in administrative data be used for research? A systematic review of the accuracy of routinely collected diagnoses. BMC Psychiatry 16, 263 (2016).
National Information Board and Department of Health Personalised Health and Care 2020: Using Data and Technology to Transform Outcomes for Patients and Citizens (GOV.UK and NHS, HM Government, 2014).
Spiranovic, C., Matthews, A., Scanlan, J. & Kirkby, K. C. Increasing knowledge of mental illness through secondary research of electronic health records: opportunities and challenges. Adv. Ment. Health 14, 14–25 (2016).
Frances, A. J. & Widiger, T. Psychiatric diagnosis: lessons from the DSM-IV past and cautions for the DSM-5 future. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 8, 109–130 (2012).
Hickie, I. B. et al. Clinical classification in mental health at the cross-roads: which direction next? BMC Med. 11, 125 (2013).
Lin, Y., Huang, S., Simon, G. E. & Liu, S. Analysis of depression trajectory patterns using collaborative learning. Math. Biosci. 282, 191–203 (2016).
Lin, Y., Huang, S., Simon, G. E. & Liu, S. Data-based decision rules to personalize depression follow-up. Sci. Rep. 8, 5064 (2018).
Insel, T. R. The NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Project: precision medicine for psychiatry. Am. J. Psychiatry 171, 395–397 (2014).
Deisseroth, K. Circuit dynamics of adaptive and maladaptive behaviour. Nature 505, 309–317 (2014).
Psychometrics and Measurement Database (KCL Institute of Psychiatry Psychology and Neuroscience, 2017); https://www.kcl.ac.uk/ioppn/depts/biostatisticshealthinformatics/research/psychometrics-and-measurement-lab/psychometrics-and-measurement-database.aspx
Carcone, D. & Ruocco, A. C. Six years of research on the National Institute of Mental Health’s Research domain criteria (RDoC) initiative: a systematic review. Front. Cell. Neurosci. 11, 46 (2017).
Karalunas, S. L. et al. Subtyping attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using temperament dimensions: toward biologically based nosologic criteria. JAMA Psychiatry 71, 1015–1024 (2014).
Casey, J. A., Schwartz, B. S., Stewart, W. F. & Adler, N. E. Using electronic health records for population health research: a review of methods and applications. Annu. Rev. Public Health 37, 61–81 (2016).
Torous, J., Onnela, J. & Keshavan, M. New dimensions and new tools to realize the potential of RDoC: digital phenotyping via smartphones and connected devices. Trans. Psychiatry 7, e1053 (2017).
Huang, S. H. et al. Toward personalizing treatment for depression: predicting diagnosis and severity. J. Am. Med. Inform. Assoc. 21, 1069–1075 (2014).
Whiteford, H. A. et al. Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 382, 1575–1586 (2013).
Friedman, R. A. Uncovering an epidemic — screening for mental illness in teens. N. Engl. J. Med. 355, 2717–2719 (2006).
Hetrick, S. et al. Early identification and intervention in depressive disorders: towards a clinical staging model. Psychother. Psychosom. 77, 263–270 (2008).
Knapp, M., McDaid, D. & Parsonage, M. Mental Health Promotion and Mental Illness Prevention: The Economic Case (London School of Economics and Political Science, Centre for Mental Health, Centre for the Economics of Mental Health, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, 2011).
Parker, G. Head to head: Is depression overdiagnosed? Yes. Br. Med. J. 335, 328 (2007).
Najman, J. M. et al. Screening in early childhood for risk of later mental health problems: a longitudinal study. J. Psychiatr. Res. 42, 694–700 (2008).
Henderson, S. W., Horwitz, A. V. & Wakefield, J. C. Should screening for depression among children and adolescents be demedicalized? J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 48, 683–687 (2009).
McGorry, P. D. Staging in neuropsychiatry: a heuristic model for understanding, prevention and treatment. Neurotox. Res. 18, 244–255 (2010).
Schoevers, R. A. et al. Prevention of late-life depression in primary care: do we know where to begin? Am. J. Psychiatry 163, 1611–1621 (2006).
Nock, M. K. et al. Cross-national analysis of the associations among mental disorders and suicidal behavior: findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. PLoS Med. 6, e1000123 (2009).
Poulin, C. et al. Predicting the risk of suicide by analyzing the text of clinical notes. PLoS ONE 9, e85733 (2014).
Hippisley-Cox, J. et al. Predicting cardiovascular risk in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QRISK2. BMJ 336, 1475–1482 (2008).
Olfson, M., Marcus, S. C. & Bridge, J. A. Emergency department recognition of mental disorders and short-term outcome of deliberate self-harm. Am. J. Psychiatry 170, 1442–1450 (2013).
College of Emergency Medicine Mental Health in Emergency Departments: A Toolkit for Improving Care (The College of Emergency Medicine, 2013).
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence Antenatal and Postnatal Mental Health: Clinical Management and Service Guidance (update) CG192 (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2014).
Kaye, J. et al. Unobtrusive measurement of daily computer use to detect mild cognitive impairment. Alzheimers Dement. 10, 10–17 (2014).
Jashinsky, J. et al. Tracking suicide risk factors through Twitter in the US. Crisis 35, 51–59 (2014).
Inkster, B., Stillwell, D., Kosinski, M. & Jones, P. A decade into Facebook: where is psychiatry in the digital age? Lancet Psychiatry 3, 1087–1090 (2016).
Conway, M. & O’Connor, D. Social media, big data, and mental health: current advances and ethical implications. Curr. Opin. Psychol. 9, 77–82 (2016).
Mikal, J., Hurst, S. & Conway, M. Ethical issues in using Twitter for population-level depression monitoring: a qualitative study. BMC Med. Ethics 17, 22 (2016).
Institute of Medicine Public Engagement and Clinical Trials: New Models and Disruptive Technologies: Workshop Summary Ch. 3 (National Academies Press, 2012).
McDonald, A. M. et al. What influences recruitment to randomised controlled trials? A review of trials funded by two UK funding agencies. Trials 7, 9 (2006).
McGregor, J. et al. The Health Informatics Trial Enhancement Project (HITE): using routinely collected primary care data to identify potential participants for a depression trial. Trials 11, 39 (2010).
Callard, F. et al. Developing a new model for patient recruitment in mental health services: a cohort study using Electronic Health Records. BMJ Open 4, e005654 (2014).
Papoulias, C., Robotham, D., Drake, G., Rose, D. & Wykes, T. Staff and service users’ views on a ‘consent for contact’ research register within psychosis services: a qualitative study. BMC Psychiatry 14, 377 (2014).
Robotham, D. et al. Facilitating mental health research for patients, clinicians and researchers: a mixed-method study. BMJ Open 6, e011127 (2016).
Relton, C. L. & Davey Smith, G. Two-step epigenetic Mendelian randomization: a strategy for establishing the causal role of epigenetic processes in pathways to disease. Int. J. Eepidemiol. 41, 161–176 (2012).
Burgess, S., Butterworth, A., Malarstig, A. & Thompson, S. G. Use of Mendelian randomisation to assess potential benefit of clinical intervention. Br. Med. J. 345, e7325 (2012).
Wray, N. R. et al. Genome-wide association analyses identify 44 risk variants and refine the genetic architecture of major depression. Nat. Genet. 50, 668–681 (2018).
Luciano, M. et al. Association analysis in over 329,000 individuals identifies 116 independent variants influencing neuroticism. Nat. Genet. 50, 6–11 (2018).
Fabbri, C. et al. New insights into the pharmacogenomics of antidepressant response from the GENDEP and STAR*D studies: rare variant analysis and high-density imputation. Pharmacogenomics J. 18, 413–421 (2018).
Perera, G., Khondoker, M., Broadbent, M., Breen, G. & Stewart, R. Factors associated with response to acetylcholinesterase inhibition in dementia: a cohort study from a secondary mental health care case register in London. PLoS ONE 9, e109484 (2014).
Taggart, H. The Five Year Forward View for Mental Health (Department of Health, London, 2016).
Maddox, T. M. & Ferguson, T. B. The potential of learning health care systems: The SWEDEHEART example. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 66, 544–546 (2015).
Fleming, I., Jones, M., Bradley, J. & Wolpert, M. Learning from a learning collaboration: The CORC approach to combining research, evaluation and practice in child mental health. Adm. Policy Ment. Health Ment. Health Serv. Res. 43, 297–301 (2016).
Clark, D. M. Implementing NICE guidelines for the psychological treatment of depression and anxiety disorders: the IAPT experience. Int. Rev. Psychiatry 23, 318–327 (2011).
Lucock, M. et al. The role of practice research networks (PRN) in the development and implementation of evidence: the northern improving access to psychological therapies PRN case study. Adm. Policy Ment. Health Ment. Health Serv. Res. 44, 919–931 (2017).
Delgadillo, J. et al. Improving the efficiency of psychological treatment using outcome feedback technology. Behav. Res. Ther. 99, 89–97 (2017).
DeRubeis, R. J. et al. The trapersonalized advantage index: translating research on prediction into individualized treatment recommendations. A demonstion. PLoS ONE 9, e83875 (2014).
Saunders, R., Cape, J., Fearon, P. & Pilling, S. Predicting treatment outcome in psychological treatment services by identifying latent profiles of patients. J. Affect. Disord. 197, 107–115 (2016).
Dimidjian, S. et al. A pragmatic randomized clinical trial of behavioral activation for depressed pregnant women. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 85, 26–36 (2017).
Rossom, R. C. et al. antidepressant adherence across diverse populations and healthcare settings. Depress. Anxiety 33, 765–774 (2016).
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence Data Science for Health and Care Excellence: Harnessing the UK Opportunities for New Research and Decision-making Paradigms (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2016).
Gillan, C. M. & Whelan, R. What big data can do for treatment in psychiatry. Curr. Opin. Behav. Sci. 18, 34–42 (2017).
Gravenhorst, F. et al. Mobile phones as medical devices in mental disorder treatment: an overview. Pers. Ubiquitous Comput. 19, 335–353 (2015).
Ibrahim, Z. M. et al. A multi-agent platform for automating the collection of patient-provided clinical feedback. In Proc. 2015 International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems 831–839 (International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, 2015).
Donker, T. et al. Smartphones for smarter delivery of mental health programs: a systematic review. J. Med. Internet Res. 15, e247 (2013).
Marley, J. & Farooq, S. Mobile telephone apps in mental health practice: uses, opportunities and challenges. BJPsych Bull. 39, 288–290 (2015).
Muaremi, A., Arnrich, B. & Tröster, G. Towards measuring stress with smartphones and wearable devices during workday and sleep. BioNanoScience 3, 172–183 (2013).
Muaremi, A., Bexheti, A., Gravenhorst, F., Arnrich, B. & Tröster, G. Monitoring the impact of stress on the sleep patterns of pilgrims using wearable sensors. In 2014 IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics (BHI) 185–188 (IEEE, 2014).
Mazilu, S. et al. GaitAssist: a daily-life support and training system for Parkinson’s disease patients with freezing of gait. In Proc. 32nd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2531–2540 (ACM, 2014).
Meyer, N. et al. Detecting early signs of relapse in psychosis using remote monitoring technology: acceptability and feasibility of a passive sensing approach. Early Interv. Psychiatry 10, 112–112 (2016).
Kerz, M. et al. SleepSight: a wearables-based relapse prevention system for schizophrenia. In Proc. 2016 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing: Adjunct 113–116 (ACM, 2016).
Keyes, J. Banking Technology Handbook (CRC Press, 1998).
Laurie, G. et al. On moving targets and magic bullets: Can the UK lead the way with responsible data linkage for health research? Int. J. Med. Inform. 84, 933–940 (2015).
Nuffield Council on Bioethics The Collection, Linking and Use of Data in Biomedical Research and Health Care: Ethical Issues (Nuffield Council on Bioethics, 2015).
Hemingway, H. et al. Big data from electronic health records for early and late translational cardiovascular research: challenges and potential. Eur. Heart J. 39, 1481–1495 (2017).
Carter, P., Laurie, G. T. & Dixon-Woods, M. The social licence for research: why care.data ran into trouble. J. Med. Ethics 41, 404–409 (2015).
Sethi, N. & Laurie, G. T. Delivering proportionate governance in the era of eHealth: making linkage and privacy work together. Med. Law Int. 13, 168–204 (2013).
Jones, K. H., McNerney, C. L. & Ford, D. V. Involving consumers in the work of a data linkage research unit. Int. J. Consum. Stud. 38, 45–51 (2014).
Ennis, L. & Wykes, T. Impact of patient involvement in mental health research: longitudinal study. Br. J. Psychiatry 203, 381–386 (2018).