In 2017, Catalonia unilaterally declared independence from Spain. The independence push was not simply a bottom-up process wherein citizens increasingly demanded independence. Catalan political elites were more radical than voters and competitive outbidding to win hegemony in the pro-independence camp fuelled the independence push.
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Attempting to measure the intensity of opposing feelings in elections: A polarization approach to Catalonia’s independence case
Economia Politica Open Access 18 April 2022
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The authors declare no competing interests.
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Barrio, A., Field, B.N. The push for independence in Catalonia. Nat Hum Behav 2, 713–715 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-018-0439-8