Moralization, protest and violence

Online communication has become integral to modern political behaviour — to the extent that events online both reflect and influence actions offline. A study uses geolocated Twitter data to argue that moralization of protests leads to violent protests and increased support for violence.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1.

    Mooijman, M., Hoover, J., Lin, Y., Ji, H. & Dehghani, M. Nat. Hum. Behav. (2018).

  2. 2.

    Opp, K.-D. Ration. Soc. 24, 73–105 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Kwak, H., Lee, C., Park, H. & Moon, S. What is Twitter, a social network or a news media? In International World Wide Conference 591–600 (ACM Press, 2010).

  4. 4.

    Golder, S. A. & Macy, M. W. Science 333, 1878–1881 (2011).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Gonçalves, B., Perra, N. & Vespignani, A. PLoS ONE 6, e22656 (2011).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Steinert-Threlkeld, Z. C. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 111, 379–403 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Zeitzoff, T. J. Conflict Resolut. 55, 938–969 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Bond, R. M. et al. Nature 489, 295–298 (2012).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Coppock, A., Guess, A. & Ternovski, J. Polit. Behav. 38, 105–128 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zachary C. Steinert-Threlkeld.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The author declares no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Steinert-Threlkeld, Z.C. Moralization, protest and violence. Nat Hum Behav 2, 370–371 (2018).

Download citation