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Measuring populist discourse in the United States and beyond

Nature Human Behaviourvolume 2pages241242 (2018) | Download Citation


Many have argued that populism dominated the 2016 US presidential election. Textual analysis of electoral discourse in the United States, Greece and Venezuela suggests that the overall level of populism in the US election was in fact moderate. Bernie Sanders and Donald Trump engaged in populist discourse, but Trump lacked consistency.

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Author information


  1. Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA

    • Kirk A. Hawkins
  2. Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago, Chile

    • Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser


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Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kirk A. Hawkins.

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