Review Article

Male antisocial behaviour in adolescence and beyond

  • Nature Human Behaviourvolume 2pages177186 (2018)
  • doi:10.1038/s41562-018-0309-4
  • Download Citation


Male antisocial behaviour is concentrated in the adolescent period of the life course, as documented by the curve of crime over age. This article reviews recent evidence regarding the hypothesis that the age–crime curve conceals two groups with different causes. Life-course-persistent males show extreme, pervasive, persistent antisocial behaviour from early childhood to adulthood. They are hypothesized to be rare, with pathological risk factors and poor life outcomes. In contrast, adolescence-limited males show similar levels of antisocial behaviour but primarily during the adolescent stage of development. They are hypothesized to be common and normative, whereas abstainers from offending are rare. This Review recaps the 25-year history of the developmental taxonomy of antisocial behaviour, concluding that it is standing the test of time in research, and making an impact on policy in early-years prevention and juvenile justice. Research is needed into how the taxonomy relates to neuroscience, health, genetics and changes in modern crime, including digital crime.

Additional access options:

Already a subscriber?  Log in  now or  Register  for online access.

Additional information

Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


  1. 1.

    Moffitt, T. E. Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: a developmental taxonomy. Psychol. Rev. 100, 674–701 (1993).

  2. 2.

    Moffitt, T. E. in The Causes of Conduct Disorder and Serious Juvenile Delinquency (eds Lahey, B., Moffitt, T. & Caspi, A.) Ch. 5 (Guildford Press, New York, NY, 2003).

  3. 3.

    Moffitt, T. E. in Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (eds Cullen, F. T., Wright, J. P. & Coleman, M.) 502–521 (Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, NJ, 2006).

  4. 4.

    Moffitt, T. E. in Developmental Psychopathology 2nd edn (eds Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J.) 570–598 (Wiley, New York, NY, 2006).

  5. 5.

    Moffitt, T. E. in The Cambridge Handbook of Violent Behavior (eds Flannery, F., Vanzonsyi, A. & Waldman, I.) Ch. 3 (Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, NY, 2007).

  6. 6.

    Robins, L. N. Sturdy childhood predictors of adult antisocial behaviour: replications from longitudinal studies. Psychol. Med. 8, 611–622 (1978).

  7. 7.

    Blumstein, A., Cohen, J., Roth, J. A. & Visher, C. A. Criminal Careers and “Career Criminals” (National Academy Press, Washington DC, 1986).

  8. 8.

    Martinez, N. N., Lee, Y. J., Eck, J. E. & O, S. H. Ravenous wolves revisited: a systematic review of offending concentration. Crime Sci. 6, 10 (2017).

  9. 9.

    Skardhamar, T. Lifetime conviction risk. J. Scand. Stud. Criminol. Crime Prev. 15, 96–101 (2014).

  10. 10.

    Poulton, R., Moffitt, T. E. & Silva, P. A. The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study: overview of the first 40 years, with an eye to the future. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 50, 679–693 (2015).

  11. 11.

    Nagin, D. S. & Land, K. C. Age, criminal careers, and population heterogeneity: specification and estimation of a nonparametric, mixed Poisson model. Criminology 31, 327–362 (1993).

  12. 12.

    Nagin, D. Group-Based Modeling of Development (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA, 2005).

  13. 13.

    Jennings, W. G. & Reingle, J. On the number and shape of developmental/life-course violence, aggression, and delinquency trajectories: a state-of-the-art review. J. Crim. Justice 4, 472–489 (2012).

  14. 14.

    Nagin, D. S. & Odgers, C. L. Group-based trajectory modeling in clinical research. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 6, 109–138 (2010).

  15. 15.

    Piquero, A. R. in Long View of Crime: A Synthesis of Longitudinal Research (ed. Liberman, A. M.) 23–78 (Springer, New York, NY, 2008).

  16. 16.

    Piquero, A. R. Invited address: James Joyce, Alice in Wonderland, the Rolling Stones, and criminal careers. J. Youth Adolesc. 40, 761–775 (2011).

  17. 17.

    Odgers, C. L. et al. Prediction of differential adult health burden by conduct problem subtypes in males. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 64, 476–484 (2007).

  18. 18.

    Odgers, C. L. et al. Female and male antisocial trajectories: from childhood origins to adult outcomes. Dev. Psychopathol. 20, 673–716 (2008).

  19. 19.

    Brook, J. S., Lee, J. Y., Finch, S. J., Brown, E. N. & Brook, D. W. Long-term consequences of membership in trajectory groups of delinquent behavior in an urban sample: violence, drug use, interpersonal, and neighborhood attributes. Aggress. Behav. 39, 440–452 (2013).

  20. 20.

    Carkin, D. M. & Tracy, P. E. Delinquent and criminal career paths in the 1958 Philadelphia birth cohort. J. Law Crim. Justice 3, 14–39 (2015).

  21. 21.

    Farrington, D. P., Piquero, A. R. & Jennings, W. G. Offending from Childhood to Late Middle Age: Recent Results from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (Springer, London, 2013).

  22. 22.

    Widom, C. S., Fisher, J. H., Nagin, D. S. & Piquero, A. R. A prospective examination of criminal career trajectories in abused and neglected males and females followed up into middle adulthood. J. Quant. Criminol. (2017).

  23. 23.

    George, M. J. & Odgers, C. L. Seven fears and the science of how mobile technologies may be influencing adolescents in the digital age. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 10, 832–851 (2015).

  24. 24.

    Kowalski, R. M., Giumetti, G. W., Schroeder, A. N. & Lattanner, M. R. Bullying in the digital age: a critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth. Psychol. Bull. 140, 1073–1137 (2014).

  25. 25.

    Jolliffe, D., Farrington, D. P., Piquero, A. R., MacLeod, J. F. & van deWeijer, S. Prevalence of life-course-persistent, adolescence-limited, and late-onset offenders: a systematic review of prospective longitudinal studies. Aggress. Behav. 33, 4–14 (2017).

  26. 26.

    Bergman, L. R. & Andershed, A. K. Predictors and outcomes of persistent or age-limited registered criminal behavior: a 30-year longitudinal study of a Swedish urban population. Aggress. Behav. 35, 164–178 (2009).

  27. 27.

    Huesmann, L. R., Dubow, E. F. & Boxer, P. Continuity of aggression from childhood to early adulthood as a predictor of life outcomes: implications for the adolescent-limited and life-course-persistent models. Aggress. Behav. 35, 136–149 (2009).

  28. 28.

    Pulkkinen, L., Lyyra, A. L. & Kokko, K. Life success of males on nonoffender, adolescence-limited, persistent, and adult-onset antisocial pathways: follow-up from age 8 to 42. Aggress. Behav. 35, 117–135 (2009).

  29. 29.

    Blokland, A. A. J., Nagin, D. S. & Nieuwbeerta, P. Life span offending trajectories of a Dutch conviction cohort. Criminology 43, 919–954 (2005).

  30. 30.

    Sampson, R. J. & Laub, J. H. Life-course desisters? Trajectories of crime among delinquent boys followed to age 70. Criminology 41, 555–592 (2003).

  31. 31.

    Piquero, A. R., Daigle, L. E., Gibson, C., Piquero, N. L. & Tibbetts, S. G. Are life-course-persistent offenders at risk for adverse health outcomes? J. Res. Crime. Delinq. 44, 185–207 (2007).

  32. 32.

    Reingle, J. M., Jennings, W. G., Piquero, A. R. & Maldonado-Molina, M. M. Is violence bad for your health? An assessment of chronic disease outcomes in a nationally representative sample. Justice Q. 31, 524–538 (2014).

  33. 33.

    Piquero, A. R., Shepherd, I., Shepherd, J. P. & Farrington, D. P. Impact of offending trajectories on health: disability, hospitalisation and death in middle-aged men in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Crim. Behav. Ment. Health 21, 189–201 (2011).

  34. 34.

    Beckley, A. L. et al. Adult-onset offenders: Is a tailored theory warranted? J. Crim. Justice 46, 64–81 (2016).

  35. 35.

    Burt, S. A. How do we optimally conceptualize the heterogeneity within antisocial behavior? An argument for aggressive versus non-aggressive behavioral dimensions. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 32, 263–279 (2012).

  36. 36.

    Frick, P. J. & White, S. F. Research review: the importance of callous-unemotional traits for developmental models of aggressive and antisocial behavior. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 49, 359–375 (2008).

  37. 37.

    Lynam, D. R. Early identification of chronic offenders: who is the fledgling psychopath? Psychol. Bull. 120, 209–234 (1996).

  38. 38.

    Arseneault, L. et al. Strong genetic effects on cross-situational antisocial behaviour among 5-year-old children according to mothers, teachers, examiner-observers, and twins’ self-reports. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 44, 832–848 (2003).

  39. 39.

    Wertz, J. et al. Etiology of pervasive versus situational antisocial behaviors: a multi-informant longitudinal cohort study. Child Dev. 87, 312–325 (2016).

  40. 40.

    Odgers, C. L. et al. Predicting prognosis for the conduct-problem boy: can family history help? J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 46, 1240–1249 (2007).

  41. 41.

    Assink, M. et al. Risk factors for persistent delinquent behavior among juveniles: a meta-analytic review. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 42, 47–61 (2015).

  42. 42.

    Jolliffe, D., Farrington, D. P., Piquero, A. R., Loeber, R. & Hill, K. G. Systematic review of early risk factors for life-course-persistent, adolescence-limited, and late-onset offenders in prospective longitudinal studies. Agress. Violent Behav. 33, 15–23 (2017).

  43. 43.

    Fairchild, G., van Goozen, S. H. M., Calder, A. J. & Goodyer, I. M. Evaluating and reformulating the developmental taxonomic theory of antisocial behaviour. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 54, 924–940 (2013).

  44. 44.

    Roisman, G. I. et al. Is adolescence-onset antisocial behavior developmentally normative? Dev. Psychopathol. 22, 295–311 (2010).

  45. 45.

    Moffitt, T. E. & Caspi, A. Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females. Dev. Psychopathol. 13, 355–375 (2001).

  46. 46.

    Moore, A. A., Silberg, J. L., Roberson-Nay, R. & Mezuk, B. Life course persistent and adolescence limited conduct disorder in a nationally representative US sample: prevalence, predictors, and outcomes. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 52, 435–443 (2017).

  47. 47.

    Vaughn, M. G. et al. The severe 5%: a latent class analysis of the externalizing behavior spectrum in the United States. J. Crim. Justice 39, 75–80 (2011).

  48. 48.

    Murray, J., Irving, B., Farrington, D. P., Colman, I. & Bloxsom, C. A. J. Very early predictors of conduct problems and crime: results from a national cohort study. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 51, 1198–1207 (2010).

  49. 49.

    Silberg, J., Moore, A. A. & Rutter, M. Age of onset and the subclassification of conduct/dissocial disorder. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 56, 826–833 (2015).

  50. 50.

    Keijsers, L., Loeber, R., Branje, S. & Meeus, W. Parent–child relationships of boys in different offending trajectories: a developmental perspective. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 53, 1222–1232 (2012).

  51. 51.

    Moffitt, T. E. Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behaviors: evidence from behavioral–genetic research. Adv. Genet. 55, 41–104 (2005).

  52. 52.

    Silberg, J. L., Rutter, M., Tracy, K., Maes, H. H. & Eaves, L. Etiological heterogeneity in the development of antisocial behavior: the Virginia twin study of adolescent behavioral development and the young adult follow-up. Psychol. Med. 37, 1193–1202 (2007).

  53. 53.

    Tackett, J. L., Krueger, R. F., Iacono, W. G. & McGue, M. Symptom-based subfactors of DSM-defined conduct disorder: evidence for etiologic distinctions. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 114, 483–487 (2005).

  54. 54.

    Visscher, P. M. et al. 10 years of GWAS discovery: biology, function, and translation. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 101, 5–22 (2017).

  55. 55.

    Okbay, A. et al. Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment. Nature 533, 539–542 (2016).

  56. 56.

    Wertz, J. et al. A polygenic score for educational attainment also predicts criminal offending: replicated evidence from two birth cohorts. Psychol. Sci. (in the press).

  57. 57.

    Tielbeek, J. J. et al. Genome-wide association studies of a broad spectrum of antisocial behavior. JAMA Psychiatry 74, 1242–1250 (2017).

  58. 58.

    Barker, E. D. et al. Developmental trajectories of male physical violence and theft: relations to neurocognitive performance. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 64, 592–599 (2007).

  59. 59.

    Eme, R. F. Sex differences in child-onset, life-course-persistent conduct disorder. A review of biological influences. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 27, 607–627 (2007).

  60. 60.

    Eme, R. Male life-course persistent antisocial behavior: a review of neurodevelopmental factors. Aggress. Violent Behav. 14, 348–358 (2009).

  61. 61.

    Hyde, L. W., Shaw, D. S. & Hariri, A. R. Understanding youth antisocial behavior using neuroscience through a developmental psychopathology lens: review, integration, and directions for research. Dev. Rev. 33, 168–223 (2013).

  62. 62.

    Rogers, J. C. & De Brito, S. A. Cortical and subcortical gray matter volume in youths with conduct problems: a meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry 73, 64–72 (2016).

  63. 63.

    Sterzer, P. & Stadler, C. Neuroimaging of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Front. Behav. Neurosci. 3, 35 (2009).

  64. 64.

    Button, K. S. et al. Power failure: why small sample size undermines the reliability of neuroscience. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 14, 365–376 (2013).

  65. 65.

    Falk, E. B. et al. What is a representative brain? Neuroscience meets population science. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 17615–17622 (2013).

  66. 66.

    Raine, A. An amygdala structural abnormality common to two subtypes of conduct disorder: a neurodevelopmental conundrum. Am. J. Psychiatry 168, 569–571 (2011).

  67. 67.

    Fairchild, G. et al. Cortical thickness, surface area, and folding alterations in male youths with conduct disorder and varying levels of callous-unemotional traits. Neuroimage Clin. 8, 253–260 (2015).

  68. 68.

    Fairchild, G. et al. Mapping the structural organization of the brain in conduct disorder: replication of findings in two independent samples. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 57, 1018–1026 (2016).

  69. 69.

    Passamonti, L. et al. Neural abnormalities in early-onset and adolescence-onset conduct disorder. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 67, 729–738 (2010).

  70. 70.

    Fairchild, G. et al. Brain structure abnormalities in early-onset and adolescent-onset conduct disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry 168, 624–633 (2011).

  71. 71.

    Casey, B. & Caudle, K. The teenage brain: self control. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 22, 82–87 (2013).

  72. 72.

    Crone, E. A., van Duijvenvoorde, A. C. K. & Peper, J. S. Neural contributions to risk-taking in adolescence — developmental changes and individual differences. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 57, 353–368 (2016).

  73. 73.

    Spear, L. The Behavioral Neuroscience of Adolescence (Norton, New York, NY, 2010).

  74. 74.

    Steinberg, L. Age of Opportunity: Lessons from the New Science of Adolescence (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, MA, 2014).

  75. 75.

    Galambos, N. L., Barker, E. T. & Tilton-Weaver, L. C. Who gets caught at maturity gap? A study of pseudomature, immature, and mature adolescents. Int. J. Behav. Dev. 27, 253–263 (2003).

  76. 76.

    Piquero, A. R. & Brezina, T. Testing Moffitt’s account of adolescence-limited delinquency. Criminology 39, 353–370 (2001).

  77. 77.

    Barnes, J. & Beaver, K. M. An empirical examination of adolescence-limited offending: a direct test of Moffitt’s maturity gap thesis. J. Crim. Justice 38, 1176–1185 (2010).

  78. 78.

    Dijkstra, J. K. et al. Explaining adolescents’ delinquency and substance use: a test of the maturity gap: the SNARE study. J. Res. Crime Delinq. 52, 747–767 (2015).

  79. 79.

    Craig, J. M., Piquero, A. R. & Farrington, D. P. The economic maturity gap encourages continuity in offending. J. Dev. Life Course Criminol. 3, 380–396 (2017).

  80. 80.

    Piquero, A. R., Farrington, D. P., Nagin, D. S. & Moffitt, T. E. Trajectories of offending and their relation to life failure in late middle age: findings from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. J. Res. Crime Delinq. 47, 151–173 (2010).

  81. 81.

    Arnett, J. J. Emerging adulthood — a theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. Am. Psychol. 55, 469–480 (2000).

  82. 82.

    Cote, J. E. Arrested Adulthood: The Changing Nature of Maturity and Identity (University Press, New York, NY, 2000).

  83. 83.

    Farrington, D. P. Age and crime. Crime Justice 7, 189–250 (1986).

  84. 84.

    Farrell, G., Laycock, G. & Tilley, N. Debuts and legacies: the crime drop and the role of adolescence limited and persistent offending. Crime Science 4, 1–10 (2015).

  85. 85.

    Matthews, B. & Minton, J. Rethinking one of criminology’s ‘brute facts’: the age–crime curve and the crime drop in Scotland. Eur. J. Criminol. (2017).

  86. 86.

    Salvatore, C., Taniguchi, T. & Welsh, W. N. Is emerging adulthood influencing Moffitt’s developmental taxonomy? Adding the “prolonged” adolescent offender. West. Crim. Rev. 13, 1–15 (2012).

  87. 87.

    Sweeten, G., Piquero, A. R. & Steinberg, L. Age and the explanation of crime, revisited. J. Youth Adolesc. 42, 921–938 (2013).

  88. 88.

    Wensveen, M., Palmen, H., Blokland, A. & Meeus, W. Examining the work–crime association in emerging adulthood: a longitudinal analysis based on a Dutch population sample. Eur. J. Criminol. 14, 467–484 (2017).

  89. 89.

    Tonry, M. Why crime rates are falling throughout the Western world. 43, 1–63 (2014).

  90. 90.

    Van Dijk, J. J. M., Tseloni, A. & Farrell, G. The International Crime Drop: New Directions in Research (Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2012).

  91. 91.

    Hussong, A. M., Curran, P. J., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A. & Carrig, M. M. Substance abuse hinders desistance in young adults’ antisocial behavior. Dev. Psychopathol. 16, 1029–1046 (2004).

  92. 92.

    McGee, T. R. et al. The impact of snares on the continuity of adolescent-onset antisocial behaviour: a test of Moffitt’s developmental taxonomy. Aust. NZ J. Criminol. 48, 345–366 (2015).

  93. 93.

    Barnes, J., Beaver, K. M. & Piquero, A. R. A test of Moffitt’s hypotheses of delinquency abstention. Crim. Justice Behav. 38, 690–709 (2011).

  94. 94.

    Chen, X. J. & Adams, M. Are teen delinquency abstainers social introverts?: A test of Moffitt’s theory. J. Res. Crime Delinq. 47, 439–468 (2010).

  95. 95.

    Johnson, M. C. & Menard, S. A longitudinal study of delinquency abstention: differences between life-course abstainers and offenders from adolescence into adulthood. Youth Violence Juv. Justice 10, 278–291 (2012).

  96. 96.

    Mercer, N. Why Aren’t All Adolescents D elinquent? Examining the Predictors, Pathways, and Processes Leading to Adolescent Delinquency (Abstention). PhD dissertation, Univ. Utrecht (2017);

  97. 97.

    Rulison, K. L., Kreager, D. A. & Osgood, D. W. Delinquency and peer acceptance in adolescence: a within-person test of Moffitt’s hypotheses. Dev. Psychol. 50, 2437–2448 (2014).

  98. 98.

    Mercer, N., Crocetti, E., Meeus, W. & Branje, S. Examining the relation between adolescent social anxiety, adolescent delinquency (abstention), and emerging adulthood relationship quality. Anxiety Stress Coping 30, 428–440 (2017).

  99. 99.

    Owens, J. G. & Slocum, L. A. Abstainers in adolescence and adulthood: exploring the correlates of abstention using Moffitt’s development taxonomy. Crime Delinq. 61, 690–718 (2012).

  100. 100.

    Mercer, N. et al. Childhood predictors and adult life success of adolescent delinquency abstainers. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 44, 613–624 (2016).

  101. 101.

    May, T. Modern Crime Prevention Strategy (Home Office, London, 2016).

  102. 102.

    Allen, G. & Duncan Smith, I. Early Intervention: Good Parents, Great Kids, Better Citizens (The Centre for Social Justice, London, 2008).

  103. 103.

    National Research Council Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach (National Academies Press, Washington DC, 2013).

  104. 104.

    National Research Council Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform: The Federal Role (National Academies Press, Washington DC, 2014).

  105. 105.

    Cohen, M. A., Piquero, A. R. & Jennings, W. G. Studying the costs of crime across offender trajectories. Criminol. Public Policy 9, 279–305 (2010).

  106. 106.

    Piquero, A. R., Jennings, W. G. & Farrington, D. The monetary costs of crime to middle adulthood: findings from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. J. Res. Crime Delinq. 50, 53–74 (2013).

  107. 107.

    Steinberg, L. The influence of neuroscience on US Supreme Court decisions about adolescents’ criminal culpability. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 14, 513–518 (2013).

  108. 108.

    Blumstein, A., Cohen, J. & Farrington, D. P. Criminal career research: its value for criminology. Criminology 26, 1–35 (1988).

  109. 109.

    Jeglum-Bartusch, D. R., Lynam, D. R., Moffitt, T. E. & Silva, P. A. Is age important? Testing general versus developmental theories of antisocial behavior. Criminology 35, 13–48 (1997).

  110. 110.

    Moffitt, T. E., Lynam, D. R. & Silva, P. A. Neuropsychological tests predicting persistent male delinquency. Criminology 32, 277–300 (1994).

  111. 111.

    Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Dickson, N., Silva, P. A. & Stanton, W. Childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial conduct in males: natural history from age 3 to 18. Dev. Psychopathol. 8, 399–424 (1996).

  112. 112.

    Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Harrington, H. & Milne, B. J. Males on the life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: follow-up at age 26 years. Dev. Psychopathol. 14, 179–207 (2002).

  113. 113.

    Rivenbark, J. et al. The high societal costs of childhood conduct problems: evidence from administrative records up to age 38 in a longitudinal birth cohort. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry

Download references


Work on this Review was supported by grants from the UK Medical Research Council (P005918, G1002190), National Institute of Child Health and Development (HD077482), National Institute on Aging (AG032282, AG049789), Jacobs Foundation and Avielle Foundation.

Author information


  1. Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA

    • Terrie E. Moffitt
  2. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA

    • Terrie E. Moffitt
  3. Center for Genomic and Computational Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA

    • Terrie E. Moffitt
  4. Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Research Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK

    • Terrie E. Moffitt


  1. Search for Terrie E. Moffitt in:

Competing interests

The author declares no competing interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Terrie E. Moffitt.