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The TIPPME intervention typology for changing environments to change behaviour


Reflecting widespread interest in concepts of ‘nudging’ and ‘choice architecture’, there is increasing research and policy attention on altering aspects of the small-scale physical environment, such as portion sizes or the placement of products, to change health-related behaviour at the population level. There is, however, a lack of clarity in characterizing these interventions and no reliable framework incorporating standardized definitions. This hampers both the synthesis of cumulative evidence about intervention effects, and the identification of intervention opportunities. To address this, a new tool, TIPPME (typology of interventions in proximal physical micro-environments), has been developed and here applied to the selection, purchase and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco. This provides a framework to reliably classify and describe, and enable more systematic design, reporting and analysis of, an important class of interventions. In doing so, it makes a distinct contribution to collective efforts to build the cumulative evidence base for effective ways of changing behaviour across populations.

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The study was funded by the United Kingdom Department of Health Policy Research Programme (Policy Research Unit in Behaviour and Health (PR-UN-0409-10109)). D.O. is supported by the Medical Research Council (unit programme number MC_UU_12015/6). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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Authors and Affiliations



G.J.H., M.P.K., D.O., I.S., S.S. and. T.M.M. conceived the study. G.J.H., G.B., M.P.K., D.O., I.S., S.S. and T.M.M. designed and conducted the workshops and reliability testing exercises. All authors conducted and interpreted the analysis. G.J.H. prepared the original manuscript, with input from G.B., S.S. and T.M.M. All authors drafted and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Gareth J. Hollands.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Supplementary Notes, Supplementary Figure 1.

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Hollands, G., Bignardi, G., Johnston, M. et al. The TIPPME intervention typology for changing environments to change behaviour. Nat Hum Behav 1, 0140 (2017).

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