The Martian surface environment today is cold and dry, but evidence suggests the planet may have hosted more habitable conditions in the past. Open questions about the evolution of the Martian atmosphere and climate motivate much Mars exploration and science. Recent global-scale observations of the Martian atmosphere combined with models reveal intriguing connections between the lower and upper atmospheres. Here we review the role of atmospheric waves, dust storms and atmospheric loss and discuss how these processes are coupled within the Martian whole atmosphere system. Atmospheric gravity (buoyancy) waves are globally present at all altitudes. The effects of planet-encircling dust storms in the lower atmosphere propagate to the upper atmosphere. The Martian hydrological cycle in which water is exchanged between the surface and atmosphere is coupled to dynamical and radiative processes operating across atmospheric layers. The thermal escape of atomic hydrogen to space, which is thought to be the primary mechanism for the long-term loss of water on Mars, is influenced by atmospheric waves and dust storms. Understanding the coupling among atmospheric waves, dust storms and atmospheric loss processes, and thus a unified understanding of the Martian whole atmosphere system, is essential to understand past and current climate on Mars.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Access Nature and 54 other Nature Portfolio journals
Get Nature+, our best-value online-access subscription
$29.99 per month
cancel any time
Subscribe to this journal
Receive 12 print issues and online access
$259.00 per year
only $21.58 per issue
Rent or buy this article
Get just this article for as long as you need it
Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout
The high-resolution Martian general circulation model simulation data used in Fig. 1 are freely available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2578740. The Martian general circulation model simulation data used in Fig. 3 are freely available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5749676.
Krasnopolsky, V. A. & Feldman, P. D. Detection of molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere of Mars. Science 294, 1914–1917 (2001).
Webster, C. R. et al. Background levels of methane in Mars’ atmosphere show strong seasonal variations. Science 360, 1093–1096 (2018).
Jakosky, B. M. & Phillips, R. J. Mars’ volatile and climate history. Nature 412, 237–244 (2001).
Kite, E. S., Williams, J.-P., Lucas, A. & Aharonson, O. Low palaeopressure of the Martian atmosphere estimated from the size distribution of ancient craters. Nat. Geosci. 7, 335–339 (2014).
Warren, A. O., Kite, E. S., Williams, J.-P. & Horgan, B. Through the thick and thin: new constraints on Mars paleopressure history 3.8–4 Ga from small exhumed craters. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 124, 2793–2818 (2019).
Kliore, A. et al. Occultation experiment: results of the first direct measurement of Mars’s atmosphere and ionosphere. Science 149, 1243–1248 (1965).
Seiff, A. & Kirk, D. B. Structure of Mars’ atmosphere up to 100 kilometers from the entry measurements of Viking 2. Science 194, 1300–1303 (1976).
Bougher, S. W., Cravens, T. E., Grebowsky, J. & Luhmann, J. The aeronomy of Mars: characterization by MAVEN of the upper atmosphere reservoir that regulates volatile escape. Space Sci. Rev. 195, 423–456 (2015).
Vago, J. et al. ESA ExoMars program: the next step in exploring Mars. Solar Syst. Res. 49, 518–528 (2015).
Yiğit, E. & Medvedev, A. S. Obscure waves in planetary atmospheres. Phys. Today 6, 40–46 (2019).
Creasey, J. E., Forbes, J. M. & Hinson, D. P. Global and seasonal distribution of gravity wave activity in Mars’ lower atmosphere derived from MGS radio occultation data. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L01803 (2006).
Medvedev, A. S., Yiğit, E., Kuroda, T. & Hartogh, P. General circulation modeling of the Martian upper atmosphere during global dust storms. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 118, 2234–2246 (2013).
Withers, P. & Pratt, R. An observational study of the response of the upper atmosphere of Mars to lower atmospheric dust storms. Icarus 225, 378–389 (2013).
González Galindo, F. et al. Variability of the Martian thermosphere during eight Martian years as simulated by a ground-to-exosphere global circulation model. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 120, 2020–2035 (2015).
Kass, D. M., Kleinböhl, A., McCleese, D. J., Schofield, J. T. & Smith, M. D. Interannual similarity in the Martian atmosphere during the dust storm season. Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, 6111–6118 (2016).
Heavens, N. G., Kass, D. M., Shirley, J. H., Piqueux, S. & Cantor, B. A. An observational overview of dusty deep convection in Martian dust storms. J. Atmos. Sci. 76, 3299–3326 (2019).
Elrod, M. K., Bougher, S. W., Roeten, K., Sharrar, R. & Murphy, J. Structural and compositional changes in the upper atmosphere related to the PEDE 2018 dust event on Mars as observed by MAVEN NGIMS. Geophys. Res. Lett. 47, e2019GL084378 (2020).
Ando, H., Imamura, T. & Tsuda, T. Vertical wavenumber spectra of gravity waves in the Martian atmosphere obtained from Mars Global Surveyor radio occultation data. J. Atmos. Sci. 69, 2906–2912 (2012).
Medvedev, A. S., Yiğit, E. & Hartogh, P. Estimates of gravity wave drag on Mars: indication of a possible lower thermosphere wind reversal. Icarus 211, 909–912 (2011).
Parish, H. F., Schubert, G., Hickey, M. & Walterscheid, R. L. Propagation of tropospheric gravity waves into the upper atmosphere of Mars. Icarus 203, 28–37 (2009).
Hickey, M. P. & Cole, K. D. A numerical model for gravity wave dissipation in the thermosphere. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 50, 689–697 (1988).
Hickey, M. P., Walterscheid, R. L. & Schubert, G. A full-wave model for a binary gas thermosphere: effects of thermal conductivity and viscosity: full-wave model for a binary gas. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 120, 3074–3083 (2015).
Yiğit, E. & Medvedev, A. S. Internal wave coupling processes in Earth’s atmosphere. Adv. Space Res. 55, 983–1003 (2015).
Moudden, Y. & Forbes, J. M. Effects of vertically propagating thermal tides on the mean structure and dynamics of Mars’ lower thermosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L23805 (2008).
Yiğit, E., Medvedev, A. S. & Hartogh, P. Gravity waves and high-altitude CO2 ice cloud formation in the Martian atmosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 42, 4294–4300 (2015).
Barnes, J. R. Possible effects of breaking gravity waves on the circulation of the middle atmosphere of Mars. J. Geophys. Res. 95, 1401–1421 (1990).
Joshi, M. M., Lawrence, B. N. & Lewis, S. R. Gravity wave drag in three-dimensional atmospheric models of Mars. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 21235–21245 (1995).
Yiğit, E., Aylward, A. D. & Medvedev, A. S. Parameterization of the effects of vertically propagating gravity waves for thermosphere general circulation models: sensitivity study. J. Geophys. Res. 113, D19106 (2008).
Medvedev, A. S., Yiğit, E., Hartogh, P. & Becker, E. Influence of gravity waves on the Martian atmosphere: general circulation modeling. J. Geophys. Res. 116, E10004 (2011).
Medvedev, A. S. & Yiğit, E. Thermal effects of internal gravity waves in the Martian upper atmosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L05201 (2012).
Medvedev, A. S. et al. Cooling of the Martian thermosphere by CO2 radiation and gravity waves: an intercomparison study with two general circulation models. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 120, 913–927 (2015).
Kuroda, T., Medvedev, A. S., Yiğit, E. & Hartogh, P. A global view of gravity waves in the Martian atmosphere inferred from a high-resolution general circulation model: gravity waves on Mars. Geophys. Res. Lett. 42, 9213–9222 (2015).
Kuroda, T., Yiğit, E. & Medvedev, A. S. Annual cycle of gravity wave activity derived from a high-resolution Martian general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 124, 1618–1632 (2019).
Spiga, A., González-Galindo, F., López-Valverde, M.-A. & Forget, F. Gravity waves, cold pockets and CO2 clouds in the Martian mesosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L02201 (2012).
Walterscheid, R. L., Hickey, M. P. & Schubert, G. Wave heating and Jeans escape in the Martian upper atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 118, 2169–9402 (2013).
Fritts, D. C. & Alexander, M. J. Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere. Rev. Geophys. 41, 1003 (2003).
Genio, A. D. D., Schubert, G. & Straus, J. M. Characteristics of acoustic-gravity waves in a diffusively separated atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 84, 1865–1879 (1979).
Walterscheid, R. L. & Hickey, M. P. Gravity wave propagation in a diffusively separated gas: effects on the total gas. J. Geophys. Res. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JA017451 (2012).
Cui, J., Lian, Y. & Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F. Compositional effects in Titan’s thermospheric gravity waves. Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 43–47 (2013).
Yiğit, E. et al. High-altitude gravity waves in the Martian thermosphere observed by MAVEN/NGIMS and modeled by a gravity wave scheme. Geophys. Res. Lett. 42, 8993–9000 (2015).
England, S. L. et al. MAVEN NGIMS observations of atmospheric gravity waves in the Martian thermosphere. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 122, 2310–2335 (2017).
Siddle, A., Mueller-Wodarg, I., Stone, S. & Yelle, R. Global characteristics of gravity waves in the upper atmosphere of Mars as measured by MAVEN/NGIMS. Icarus 333, 12–21 (2019).
Li, Y., Liu, J. & Jin, S. Horizontal internal gravity waves in the Mars upper atmosphere from MAVEN ACC and NGIMS measurements. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 126, e2020JA028378 (2021).
Tellmann, S., Pätzold, M., Häusler, B., Hinson, D. P. & Tyler, G. L. The structure of Mars lower atmosphere from Mars Express Radio Science (MaRS) occultation measurements. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 118, 306–320 (2013).
Heavens, N., Kass, D. M., Kleinböhl, A. & Schofield, J. T. A multiannual record of gravity wave activity in Mars’s lower atmosphere from on-planet observations by the Mars Climate Sounder. Icarus 341, 113630 (2020).
Saunders, W. R., Person, M. J. & Withers, P. Observations of gravity waves in the middle atmosphere of Mars. Astrophys. J. 161, 280 (2021).
Yiğit, E., Medvedev, A. S., Benna, M. & Jakosky, B. Dust storm-enhanced gravity wave activity in the Martian thermosphere observed by MAVEN and implication for atmospheric escape. Geophys. Res. Lett. 48, e2020GL092095 (2021).
Jesch, D., Medvedev, A. S., Castellini, F., Yiğit, E. & Hartogh, P. Density fluctuations in the lower thermosphere of Mars retrieved from the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) aerobraking. Atmosphere 10, 620 (2019).
Leelavathi, V., Venkateswara Rao, N. & Rao, S. V. B. Interannual variability of atmospheric gravity waves in the Martian thermosphere: effects of the 2018 planet-encircling dust event. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 125, e2020JE006649 (2020).
Williamson, H. N., Johnson, R. E., Leclercq, L. & Elrod, M. K. Large amplitude perturbations in the Martian exosphere seen in MAVEN NGIMS data. Icarus 331, 110–115 (2019).
England, S. L. et al. Simultaneous observations of atmospheric tides from combined in situ and remote observations at Mars from the MAVEN spacecraft. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 121, 594–607 (2016).
Liu, G. et al. Longitudinal structures in Mars’ upper atmosphere as observed by MAVEN/NGIMS. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 122, 1258–1268 (2017).
Forbes, J. M., Zhang, X., Forget, F., Millour, E. & Kleinböhl, A. Solar tides in the middle and upper atmosphere of Mars. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 125, e2020JA028140 (2020).
Pang, K. & Hord, C. W. Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometeer experiment: 1971 Mars’ dust storm. Icarus 18, 481–488 (1973).
Gierasch, P. J. Martian dust storms. Rev. Geophys. 12, 730–734 (1974).
Leovy, C. B. The atmosphere of Mars. Scientific American (1 July 1977).
Kass, D. M. et al. Mars Climate Sounder observation of Mars’ 2018 global dust storm. Geophys. Res. Lett. 47, e2019GL083931 (2020).
Haberle, R. M., Leovy, C. B. & Pollack, J. B. Some effects of global dust storms on the atmospheric circulation of Mars. Icarus 50, 322–367 (1982).
Cantor, B. A. MOC observations of the 2001 Mars planet-encircling dust storm. Icarus 186, 60–96 (2007).
Clancy, R. T. et al. Extension of atmospheric dust loading to high altitudes during the 2001 Mars dust storm: MGS TES limb observations. Icarus 207, 98–109 (2010).
Heavens, N. et al. Structure and dynamics of the Martian lower and middle atmosphere as observed by the Mars Climate Sounder: 2. Implications of the thermal structure and aerosol distributions for the mean meridional circulation. J. Geophys. Res. Planets https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JE003677 (2011).
Jain, S. K. et al. Martian thermospheric warming associated with the planet encircling dust event of 2018. Geophys. Res. Lett. 47, e2019GL085302 (2020).
Wu, Z., Li, T., Zhang, X., Li, J. & Cui, J. Dust tides and rapid meridional motions in the Martian atmosphere during major dust storms. Nat. Commun. 11, 614 (2020).
Cantor, B. A. et al. Martian dust storm activity near the Mars 2020 candidate landing sites: MRO-MARCI observations from Mars years 28–34. Icarus 321, 161–170 (2019).
Shirley, J. H. et al. Rapid expansion and evolution of a regional dust storm in the Acidalia Corridor during the initial growth phase of the Martian global dust storm of 2018. Geophys. Res. Lett. 47, e2019GL084317 (2020).
Withers, P., Weiner, S. & Ferreri, N. R. Recovery and validation of Mars ionospheric electron density profiles from Mariner 9. Earth Planets Space 67, 194 (2015).
Girazian, Z. et al. Variations in the ionospheric peak altitude at Mars in response to dust storms: 13 years of observations from the Mars Express Radar Sounder. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 125, e2019JE006092 (2020).
Lee, Y. et al. Effects of global and regional dust storms on the Martian hot O corona and photochemical loss. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 125, e2019JA027115 (2020).
Mukundan, V., Thampi, S. V., Bhardwaj, A. & Fang, X. Impact of the 2018 Mars global dust storm on the ionospheric peak: a study using a photochemical model. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 126, e2021JE006823 (2021).
Ordonez-Etxeberria, I., Hueso, R., Sánchez-Lavega, A. & Vicente-Retortillo, A. Characterization of a local dust storm on Mars with REMS/MSL measurements and MARCI/MRO images. Icarus 338, 113521 (2020).
Bell, J. M., Bougher, S. W. & Murphy, J. R. Vertical dust mixing and the interannual variations in the Mars thermosphere. J. Geophys. Res. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JE002856 (2007).
Haberle, R. M. et al. Mars atmospheric dynamics as simulated by the NASA Ames general circulation model: 1. The zonal-mean circulation. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 98, 3093–3123 (1993).
Kleinböhl, A. et al. Diurnal variations of dust during the 2018 global dust storm observed by the Mars Climate Sounder. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 125, e2019JE006115 (2020).
Luginin, M. et al. Properties of water ice and dust particles in the atmosphere of Mars during the 2018 global dust storm as inferred from the atmospheric chemistry suite. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 125, e2020JE006419 (2020).
Neary, L. et al. Explanation for the increase in high-altitude water on Mars observed by NOMAD during the 2018 global dust storm. Geophys. Res. Lett. 47, e2019GL084354 (2020).
Heavens, N. G., Kass, D. M. & Shirley, J. H. Dusty deep convection in the Mars year 34 planet-encircling dust event. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 124, 2863–2892 (2019).
Shaposhnikov, D. S., Medvedev, A. S., Rodin, A. V., Yiğit, E. & Hartogh, P. Martian dust storms and gravity waves: disentangling water transport to the upper atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 127, e2021JE007102 (2022).
Kuroda, T., Medvedev, A. S. & Yiğit, E. Gravity wave activity in the atmosphere of Mars during the 2018 global dust storm: simulations with a high resolution model. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 125, e2020JE006556 (2020).
Carr, M. H. Channels and valleys on Mars: cold climate features formed as a result of a thickening cryosphere. Planet. Space Sci. 44, 1411–1423 (1996).
Alemanno, G., Orofino, V. & Mancarella, F. Global map of Martian fluvial systems: age and total eroded volume estimations. Earth Space Sci. 5, 560–577 (2018).
Dundas, C. M. et al. Granular flows at recurring slope lineae on Mars indicate a limited role for liquid water. Nat. Geosci. 10, 903–907 (2017).
Brown, A. J., Calvin, W. M., Becerra, P. & Byrne, S. Martian north polar cap summer water cycle. Icarus 277, 401–415 (2016).
McEwen, A. S. et al. Recurring slope lineae in equatorial regions of Mars. Nat. Geosci. 7, 53–58 (2014).
Smith, M. D. The annual cycle of water vapor on Mars as observed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 107 (2002).
Titov, D. V. Water vapour in the atmosphere of Mars. Adv. Space Res. 29, 183–191 (2002).
Maltagliati, L. et al. Evidence of water vapor in excess of saturation in the atmosphere of Mars. Science 333, 1868–1871 (2011).
Shaposhnikov, D. S., Medvedev, A. S., Rodin, A. V. & Hartogh, P. Seasonal water “pump" in the atmosphere of Mars: vertical transport to the thermosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 46, 4161–4169 (2019).
Haberle, R. M. et al. Documentation of the NASA/Ames Legacy Mars Global Climate Model: simulations of the present seasonal water cycle. Icarus 333, 130–164 (2019).
Chaffin, M. S., Deighan, J., Schneider, N. M. & Stewart, A. I. F. Elevated atmospheric escape of atomic hydrogen from Mars induced by high-altitude water. Nat. Geosci. 10, 174–178 (2017).
Krasnopolsky, V. A. Photochemistry of water in the Martian thermosphere and its effect on hydrogen escape. Icarus 321, 62–70 (2019).
Stoney, G. J. Of atmospheres upon planets and satellites. Astrophys. J. 7, 25–55 (1898).
Chamberlain, J. W. Planetary coronae and atmospheric evaporation. Planet. Space Sci. 11, 901–960 (1963).
Lammer, H. et al. Atmospheric escape and evolution of terrestrial planets and satellites. Space Sci. Rev. 139, 399–436 (2008).
Lammer, H. in Origin and Evolution of Planetary Atmospheres: Implications for Habitability (ed. Lammer, H.) 25–74 (Springer, 2013).
Öpik, E. J. & Singer, S. F. Distribution of density in a planetary exosphere. II. Phys. Fluids 4, 221–233 (1961).
Watson, A. J., Donahue, T. M. & Walker, J. C. G. The dynamics of a rapidly escaping atmosphere: applications to the evolution of Earth and Venus. Icarus 48, 150–166 (1981).
Heavens, N. G. et al. Hydrogen escape from Mars enhanced by deep convection in dust storms. Nat. Astron. 2, 126–132 (2018).
Stone, S. W. et al. Hydrogen escape from Mars is driven by seasonal and dust storm transport of water. Science 370, 824–831 (2020).
Jakosky, B. et al. Loss of the Martian atmosphere to space: present-day loss rates determined from MAVEN observations and integrated loss through time. Icarus 315 (2018).
Chaufray, J. Y. et al. Study of the hydrogen escape rate at Mars during Martian years 28 and 29 from comparisons between SPICAM/Mars express observations and GCM-LMD simulations. Icarus 353 (2021).
Chaffin, M. S. et al. Unexpected variability of Martian hydrogen escape. Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 314–320 (2014).
Chaffin, M. S. et al. Mars H escape rates derived from MAVEN/IUVS Lyman alpha brightness measurements and their dependence on model assumptions. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 123, 2192–2210 (2018).
Mayyasi, M. et al. Significant space weather impact on the escape of hydrogen from Mars. Geophys. Res. Lett. 45, 8844–8852 (2018).
Krasnopolsky, V. A. Solar activity variations of thermospheric temperatures on Mars and a problem of CO in the lower atmosphere. Icarus 207, 638–647 (2010).
Yiğit, E. Martian water escape and internal waves. Science 374, 1323–1324 (2021).
Mayyasi, M. et al. Significant space weather impact on the escape of hydrogen from Mars. Geophys. Res. Lett. 45, 8844–8852 (2018).
Dong, C. et al. Solar wind interaction with Mars upper atmosphere: results from the one-way coupling between the multifluid MHD model and the MTGCM model. Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 2708–2715 (2014).
Lillis, R. J. et al. An improved crustal magnetic field map of Mars from electron reflectometry: highland volcano magmatic history and the end of the Martian dynamo. Icarus 194, 575–596 (2008).
Bougher, S. W. et al. Mars Global Ionosphere–Thermosphere Model: solar cycle, seasonal, and diurnal variations of the Mars upper atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 120, 311–342 (2015).
Gronoff, G. et al. Atmospheric escape processes and planetary atmospheric evolution. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 125, e2019JA027639 (2020).
Liuzzi, G. et al. Strong variability of Martian water ice clouds during dust storms revealed from ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter/NOMAD. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 125, e2019JE006250 (2020).
Vandaele, A. C. et al. Martian dust storm impact on atmospheric H2O and D/H observed by ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. Nature 568, 521–525 (2019).
Fedorova, A. A. et al. Stormy water on Mars: the distribution and saturation of atmospheric water during the dusty season. Science 367, 297–300 (2020).
Garcia, R. F., Drossart, P., Piccioni, G., López Valverde, M. & Occhipinti, G. Gravity waves in the upper atmosphere of Venus revealed by CO2 nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium emissions. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 114 (2009).
Forbes, J. M., Bruinsma, S. L., Doornbos, E. & Zhang, X. Gravity wave-induced variability of the middle thermosphere. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 121, 6914–6923 (2016).
Young, L. A., Yelle, R. V., Young, R., Seiff, A. & Kirk, D. B. Gravity waves in Jupiter’s thermosphere. Science 276, 108–111 (1997).
Matcheva, K. I. & Barrow, D. J. Small-scale variability in Saturn’s lower ionosphere. Icarus 221, 525–543 (2012).
Harada, Y., Gurnett, D. A., Kopf, A. J., Halekas, J. S. & Ruhunusiri, S. Ionospheric irregularities at Mars probed by MARSIS topside sounding. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 123, 1018–1030 (2018).
Clarke, J. T. Dust-enhanced water escape. Nat. Astron. 2, 114–115 (2018).
Stevens, M. H. et al. Martian mesospheric cloud observations by IUVS on MAVEN: thermal tides coupled to the upper atmosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 44, 4709–4715 (2017).
Peter, K. et al. The lower dayside ionosphere of Mars from 14 years of MaRS radio science observations. Icarus 359, 114213 (2021).
Mendillo, M. et al. Sources of ionospheric variability at Mars. J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics 122, 9670–9684 (2017).
Mayyasi, M., Narvaez, C., Benna, M., Elrod, M. & Mahaffy, P. Ion-neutral coupling in the upper atmosphere of Mars: a dominant driver of topside ionospheric structure. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 124, 3786–3798 (2019).
Zurek, R. W. in Mars (ed. Kieffer, H. et al.) 799–817 (Univ. Arizona Press, 1992).
Yiğit, E., Knížová, P. K., Georgieva, K. & Ward, W. A review of vertical coupling in the atmosphere–ionosphere system: effects of waves, sudden stratospheric warmings, space weather, and of solar activity. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 141, 1–12 (2016).
Zurek, R. W. et al. Mars thermosphere as seen in MAVEN accelerometer data. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 122, 3798–3814 (2017).
Fu, M., Cui, J., Wu, X., Wu, Z. & Li, J. The variations of the Martian exobase altitude. Earth Planet. Phys. 4, 4–10 (2020).
Nagy, A. F. et al. The plasma environment of Mars. Space Sci. Rev. 111, 82 (2004).
Dubinin, E. et al. Expansion and shrinking of the Martian topside ionosphere. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 124, 9725–9738 (2019).
Bougher, S. W. et al. The structure and variability of Mars dayside thermosphere from MAVEN NGIMS and IUVS measurements: seasonal and solar activity trends in scale heights and temperatures. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 122, 1296–1313 (2017).
E.Y. was partially funded by NASA (grants 80NSSC22K0016 and 80NSSC20K0941).
The author declares no competing interests.
Peer review information
Nature Geoscience thanks Nicholas Heavens and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work. Primary Handling Editor: Tamara Goldin, in collaboration with the Nature Geoscience team.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.
About this article
Cite this article
Yiğit, E. Coupling and interactions across the Martian whole atmosphere system. Nat. Geosci. 16, 123–132 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-022-01118-7