This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Access Nature and 54 other Nature Portfolio journals
Get Nature+, our best-value online-access subscription
$29.99 / 30 days
cancel any time
Subscribe to this journal
Receive 12 print issues and online access
$259.00 per year
only $21.58 per issue
Rent or buy this article
Prices vary by article type
Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout
Kilbourne, K. H. et al. Atlantic circulation change still uncertain. Nat. Geosci. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-022-00896-4 (2022).
Caesar, L., McCarthy, G. D., Thornalley, D. J. R., Cahill, N. & Rahmstorf, S. Current Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation weakest in last millennium. Nat. Geosci. 14, 118–120 (2021).
Moffa-Sánchez, P. et al. Variability in the northern North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans across the last two millennia: a review. Paleoceanogr. Paleoclimatol. 34, 1399–1436 (2019).
Rahmstorf, S. et al. Exceptional twentieth-century slowdown in Atlantic Ocean overturning circulation. Nat. Clim. Change 5, 475–480 (2015).
Thornalley, D. J. R. et al. Anomalously weak Labrador Sea convection and Atlantic overturning during the past 150 years. Nature 556, 227–230 (2018).
Caesar, L., Rahmstorf, S., Robinson, A., Feulner, G. & Saba, V. Observed fingerprint of a weakening Atlantic Ocean overturning circulation. Nature 556, 191–196 (2018).
Smeed, D. A. et al. Observed decline of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation 2004–2012. Ocean Sci. 10, 29–38 (2014).
Østerhus, S. et al. Arctic Mediterranean exchanges: a consistent volume budget and trends in transports from two decades of observations. Ocean Sci. 15, 379–399 (2019).
Thornalley, D. J. R. et al. Long-term variations in Iceland–Scotland overflow strength during the Holocene. Clim. Past. 9, 2073–2084 (2013).
Wanamaker, A. D. et al. Surface changes in the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during the last millennium. Nat. Commun. 3, 899 (2012).
Lohmann, G. & Schöne, B. R. Climate signatures on decadal to interdecadal time scales as obtained from mollusk shells (Arctica islandica) from Iceland. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 373, 152–162 (2013).
Keil, P. et al. Multiple drivers of the North Atlantic warming hole. Nat. Clim. Change 10, 667–671 (2020).
Worthington, E. L. et al. A 30-year reconstruction of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation shows no decline. Ocean Sci. 17, 285–299 (2021).
Frajka-Williams, E. Estimating the Atlantic overturning at 26° N using satellite altimetry and cable measurements. Geophys. Res. Lett. 42, 3458–3464 (2015).
Weijer, W., Cheng, W., Garuba, O. A., Hu, A. & Nadiga, B. T. CMIP6 models predict significant 21st century decline of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 47, e2019GL086075 (2020).
Osman, M. B. et al. Industrial-era decline in subarctic Atlantic productivity. Nature 569, 551–555 (2019).
L.C., N.C. and G.D.M. are supported by the A4 project. A4 (Grant-Aid Agreement no. PBA/CC/18/01) is carried out with the support of the Marine Institute under the Marine Research Programme funded by the Irish Government. D.J.R.T. is supported by UK NERC grant NE/S009736/1.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information
Nature Geoscience thanks the anonymous reviewers for their contribution to the peer review of this work. Primary Handling editor: James Super, in collaboration with the Nature Geoscience team.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Caesar, L., McCarthy, G.D., Thornalley, D.J.R. et al. Reply to: Atlantic circulation change still uncertain. Nat. Geosci. 15, 168–170 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-022-00897-3
This article is cited by
Weakened AMOC related to cooling and atmospheric circulation shifts in the last interglacial Eastern Mediterranean
Nature Communications (2023)
Projected Atlantic overturning slow-down is to be compensated by a strengthened South Atlantic subtropical gyre
Communications Earth & Environment (2023)
Early warning signal for a tipping point suggested by a millennial Atlantic Multidecadal Variability reconstruction
Nature Communications (2022)