a, Averages of RHN for extra-tropical forest and savanna ecosystems, as a function of the distance from the measured HONO maxima for the 100 largest measured HONO SCDs. Error bars are RHN standard deviations; numbers are the total pixels per distance bin. RHN peaks are found within the 5–12 km radius of temporary flight restriction (TFR) zone or affected by fire-induced turbulence. The TROPOMI results are classified using MODIS land cover type39. The inset colored bars indicate the range (mean ± standard deviation) of RHN found in the literature (Supplementary Table 2, excluding fresh plumes from large wildfires34). b, same as (a) for the HONO and NO2 slant column densities (normalized).