a,b, The mean and median number of authors (a) and affiliations (b) for papers in a given year. c,d, The grey circles show the total number of authors (c) and affiliations (d) data for each paper binned by year. Note these are plotted on a log scale. The distribution of the data is represented by vertical black lines, while horizontal lines represent the mean. Number of affiliations can include separate departments at the same university as well as multiple affiliations associated with individual authors.