The 850 hPa (a) mean temperature (K), (b) temperature variance (K2), and (c) skewness, during NH winter (DJF). Panels (d)–(f) show the same but for the summer period (JJA). These results can be compared with the same quantities from the historical CMIP5 simulations (panels a,b,e,f of Fig. 1, and panels a,e of Fig. 2 in the manuscript).