The T2m (a) mean temperature (K), (b) temperature variance (K2), and (c) temperature skewness, during summer (JJA), and the corresponding projected changes in (d)–(f), respectively. The surface response is calculated for a subset of 16 models (denoted by * in the model list given in table S1), for which data was obtained. The summer T2m mean, variance, and skewness can be compared with the 850 hPa fields shown in Fig. 1e,g, Fig. 1f,h, and Fig. 2e,g in the manuscript, respectively.