Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Dry late accretion inferred from Venus’s coupled atmosphere and internal evolution

Abstract

It remains contentious whether the meteoritic material delivered to the terrestrial planets after the end of core formation was rich or poor in water and other volatiles. As Venus’s atmosphere has probably experienced less volatile recycling over its history than Earth’s, it may be possible to constrain the volatile delivery to the primitive Venusian atmosphere from the planet’s present-day atmospheric composition. Here we investigate the long-term evolution of Venus using self-consistent numerical simulations of global thermochemical mantle convection coupled with both an atmospheric evolution model and a late accretion N-body delivery model. We found that atmospheric escape is only able to remove a limited amount of water over the history of the planet, and that the late accretion of wet material exceeds this sink and would result in a present-day atmosphere that is too rich in volatiles. A preferentially dry composition of the late accretion impactors is most consistent with measurements of atmospheric H2O, CO2 and N2. Hence, we suggest that the late accreted material delivered to Venus was mostly dry enstatite chondrite, consistent with isotopic data for Earth, with less than 2.5% (by mass) wet carbonaceous chondrites. In this scenario, the majority of Venus’s and Earth’s water would have been delivered during the main accretion phase.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Volatile exchanges on Venus.
Fig. 2: LA scenarios.
Fig. 3: Evolution of water in the atmosphere of Venus.
Fig. 4: Consequences of LA volatile content on present-day Venus atmosphere.

Data availability

The data that support the findings reported in this article are available as follows: code outputs of N-body simulations (impactors and collisions parameters) are available from figshare, with the identifier https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.11829621. Data generated for the models displayed in the figures (equivalent pressure evolutions) are available from figshare, with the identifier https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.11829621. Datasets generated during the current study as the present-day Venus atmosphere composition for the full complement of models are available in Supplementary Information.

Code availability

The convection code StagYY is the property of P.J.T. and Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich. It is available on request from P.J.T. (paul.tackley@erdw.ethz.ch). The N-body model MERCURY, used for the LA scenarios, is available at https://github.com/4xxi/mercury.

References

  1. Lammer, H. et al. Origin and evolution of the atmospheres of early Venus, Earth and Mars. Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 26, 2 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  2. Lammer, H. et al. What makes a planet habitable? Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 17, 181–249 (2009).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Raymond, S. N. & Izidoro, A. Origin of water in the inner Solar System: planetesimals scattered inward during Jupiter and Saturn’s rapid gas accretion. Icarus 297, 134–148 (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  4. O'Brien, D. P., Izidoro, A., Jacobson, S. A., Raymond, S. N. & Rubie, D. C. The delivery of water during terrestrial planet formation. Space Sci. Rev. 214, 47 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  5. Morbidelli, A. & Wood, B. J. in The Early Earth: Accretion and Differentiation (eds Badro, J. & Walter, M. J.) 71–82 (Geophysical Monograph Series Vol. 212, American Geophysical Union, 2015).

  6. Rubie, D. C. et al. Highly siderophile elements were stripped from Earth’s mantle by iron sulfide segregation. Science 353, 1141–1144 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  7. Day, J. M., Pearson, D. G. & Taylor, L. A. Highly siderophile element constraints on accretion and differentiation of the Earth–Moon system. Science 315, 217–219 (2007).

    Google Scholar 

  8. Albarède, F. Volatile accretion history of the terrestrial planets and dynamic implications. Nature 461, 1227–1233 (2009).

    Google Scholar 

  9. Fischer-Gödde, M. & Kleine, T. Ruthenium isotopic evidence for an inner Solar System origin of the late veneer. Nature 541, 525–527 (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  10. Dauphas, N. The isotopic nature of the Earth’s accreting material through time. Nature 541, 521–524 (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  11. Raymond, S. N., Schlichting, H. E., Hersant, F. & Selsis, F. Dynamical and collisional constraints on a stochastic late veneer on the terrestrial planets. Icarus 226, 671–681 (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  12. Odert, P. et al. Escape and fractionation of volatiles and noble gases from Mars-sized planetary embryos and growing protoplanets. Icarus 307, 327–346 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  13. Peslier, A. H., Schönbächler, M., Busemann, H. & Karato, S. I. Water in the Earth’s interior: distribution and origin. Space Sci. Rev. 212, 743–810 (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  14. Way, M. J. et al. Was Venus the first habitable world of our solar system? Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, 8376–8383 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  15. Lichtenegger, H. I. M. et al. Solar XUV and ENA‐driven water loss from early Venus’ steam atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 121, 4718–4732 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  16. Rasool, S. I. & de Bergh, C. The runaway greenhouse effect and the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere of Venus. Nature 226, 1037–1039 (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  17. Salvador, A. et al. The relative influence of H2O and CO2 on the primitive surface conditions and evolution of rocky planets. J. Geophys. Res. 122, 1458–1486 (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  18. Hamano, K., Abe, Y. & Genda, H. Emergence of two types of terrestrial planet on solidification of magma ocean. Nature 497, 607–610 (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  19. Solomatov, V. S. Initiation of subduction by small-scale convection. J. Geophys. Res. 109, B01412 (2004).

    Google Scholar 

  20. Driscoll, P. & Bercovici, D. Divergent evolution of Earth and Venus: influence of degassing, tectonics, and magnetic fields. Icarus 226, 1447–1464 (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  21. Gillmann, C., Golabek, G. J. & Tackley, P. J. Effect of a single large impact on the coupled atmosphere–interior evolution of Venus. Icarus 268, 295–312 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  22. Elkins-Tanton, L. T. Magma oceans in the inner solar system. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 40, 113–139 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  23. Monteux, J. et al. Mechanical adjustment after impacts during planetary growth. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L24201 (2007).

    Google Scholar 

  24. Shuvalov, V. Atmospheric erosion induced by oblique impacts. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 44, 1095–1105 (2009).

    Google Scholar 

  25. Brasser, R., Mojzsis, S. J., Werner, S. C., Matsumura, S. & Ida, S. Late veneer and late accretion to the terrestrial planets. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 455, 85–93 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  26. Jacobson, S. A. et al. Highly siderophile elements in Earth’s mantle as a clock for the Moon-forming impact. Nature 508, 84–87 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  27. Pepin, R. O. On the origin and early evolution of terrestrial planet atmospheres and meteoritic volatiles. Icarus 92, 2–79 (1991).

    Google Scholar 

  28. Muenow, D. W. & Wilson, L. High-temperature mass spectrometric degassing of enstatite chondrites: implications for pyroclastic volcanism on the aubrite parent body. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56, 4267–4280 (1992).

    Google Scholar 

  29. Marty, B. The origins and concentrations of water, carbon, nitrogen and noble gases on Earth. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 313, 56–66 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  30. Pearson, V. K. et al. Carbon and nitrogen in carbonaceous chondrites: elemental abundances and stable isotopic compositions. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 41, 1899–1918 (2006).

    Google Scholar 

  31. Sakuraba, H., Kurokawa, H. & Genda, H. Impact degassing and atmospheric erosion on Venus, Earth, and Mars during the late accretion. Icarus 317, 48–58 (2019).

    Google Scholar 

  32. Schaefer, L., Wordsworth, R. D., Berta-Thompson, Z. & Sasselov, D. Predictions of the atmospheric composition of GJ 1132b. Astrophys. J. 829, 63 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  33. Zahnle, K. J. & Kasting, J. F. Mass fractionation during transonic escape and implications for loss of water from Mars and Venus. Icarus 68, 462–480 (1986).

    Google Scholar 

  34. Kasting, J. F. & Pollack, J. B. Loss of water from Venus. I. Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen. Icarus 53, 479–508 (1983).

    Google Scholar 

  35. Filiberto, J., Trang, D., Treiman, A. H. & Gilmore, M. S. Present-day volcanism on Venus as evidenced from weathering rates of olivine. Sci. Adv. 6, eaax7445 (2020).

    Google Scholar 

  36. Johnson, B. & Goldblatt, C. The nitrogen budget of Earth. Earth-Sci. Rev. 148, 150–173 (2015).

  37. Lécuyer, C., Simon, L. & Guyot, F. Comparison of carbon, nitrogen and water budgets on Venus and the Earth. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 181, 33–40 (2000).

    Google Scholar 

  38. Fegley. B. Jr in Planets, Asteroids, Comets, and the Solar System 2nd edn (eds Holland, H. D. & Turekian, K. K.) 127–148 (Treatise on Geochemistry, Vol. 2, Elsevier, 2014).

  39. Marcq, E., Mills, F. P., Parkinson, C. D. & Vandaele, A. C. Composition and chemistry of the neutral atmosphere of Venus. Space Sci. Rev. 214, 10 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  40. Grinspoon, D. H. Implications of the high D/H ratio for the sources of water in Venus’ atmosphere. Nature 363, 428–431 (1993).

    Google Scholar 

  41. Kasting, J. F., Pollack, J. B. & Ackerman, T. P. Response of Earth’s atmosphere to increases in solar flux and implications for loss of water from Venus. Icarus 57, 335–355 (1984).

    Google Scholar 

  42. Zahnle, K. J. in Protostars and Planets III (eds Levy, E. H. & Lunine, J. I.) 1305–1338 (Univ. Arizona Press, 1993).

  43. Wordsworth, R. D. Atmospheric nitrogen evolution on Earth and Venus. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 447, 103–111 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  44. Melosh, H. J. & Vickery, A. M. Impact erosion of the primordial atmosphere of Mars. Nature 338, 487–489 (1989).

    Google Scholar 

  45. Griffith, C. A. & Zahnle, K. Influx of cometary volatiles to planetary moons: the atmospheres of 1000 possible Titans. J. Geophys. Res. Planet. 100, 16907–16922 (1995).

    Google Scholar 

  46. Kulikov, Y. N. et al. Atmospheric and water loss from early Venus. Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1425–1444 (2006).

    Google Scholar 

  47. Gillmann, C., Chassefière, E. & Lognonné, P. A consistent picture of early hydrodynamic escape of Venus atmosphere explaining present Ne and Ar isotopic ratios and low oxygen atmospheric content. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 286, 503–513 (2009).

    Google Scholar 

  48. Lichtenberg, T. et al. A water budget dichotomy of rocky protoplanets from 26Al-heating. Nat. Astron. 2, 307–313 (2019).

    Google Scholar 

  49. Rubie, D. C. et al. Accretion and differentiation of the terrestrial planets with implications for the compositions of early-formed Solar System bodies and accretion of water. Icarus 248, 89–108 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  50. Schönbächler, M., Carlson, R. W., Horan, M. F., Mock, T. D. & Hauri, E. H. Heterogeneous accretion and the moderately volatile element budget of Earth. Science 328, 884–887 (2010).

    Google Scholar 

  51. Crameri, F. Geodynamic diagnostics, scientific visualisation and StagLab 3.0. Geosci. Model Dev. 11, 2541–2562 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  52. Tackley, P. J. Modelling compressible mantle convection with large viscosity contrasts in a three-dimensional spherical shell using the yin-yang grid. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 171, 7–18 (2008).

    Google Scholar 

  53. Armann, M. & Tackley, P. J. Simulating the thermochemical magmatic and tectonic evolution of Venus’s mantle and lithosphere: two-dimensional models. J. Geophys. Res. 117, E12003 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  54. Gillmann, C. & Tackley, P. J. Atmosphere/mantle coupling and feedback on Venus. J. Geophys. Res. 119, 1189–1217 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  55. Lammer, H. et al. Loss of hydrogen and oxygen from the upper atmosphere of Venus. Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1445–1456 (2006).

    Google Scholar 

  56. Ribas, I., Guinan, E. F., Güdel, M. & Audard, M. Evolution of the solar activity over time and effects on planetary atmospheres. I. High-energy irradiances (1–1700 Å). Astrophys. J. 622, 680–694 (2005).

    Google Scholar 

  57. Saxena, P., Killen, R. M., Airapetian, V., Petro, N. E. & Mandell, A. The Sun was likely not a fast rotator: using lunar moderate volatile depletion and solar analogue activity from Kepler data as constraints. In AGU Fall Meeting 2018 (session conveners Meyer, H. M. et al.) Abstract P23D-3479 (AGU, 2018).

  58. Gough, D. O. Solar interior structure and luminosity variations. Solar Phys. 74, 21–34 (1981).

    Google Scholar 

  59. Ribas, I. et al. Evolution of the solar activity over time and effects on planetary atmospheres. II. κ1 Ceti, an analog of the Sun when life arose on Earth. Astrophys. J. 714, 384–395 (2010).

    Google Scholar 

  60. Hunten, D., Pepin, R. & Walker, J. Mass fractionation in hydrodynamic escape (of gases from planetary atmospheres). Icarus 69, 532–549 (1987).

    Google Scholar 

  61. Chassefière, E. Hydrodynamic escape of oxygen from primitive atmospheres: applications to the cases of Venus and Mars. Icarus 124, 537–552 (1996).

    Google Scholar 

  62. Chassefière, E. Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from a hot water-rich atmosphere: the case of Venus. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 26039–26056 (1996).

    Google Scholar 

  63. Chassefière, E. Loss of water on the young Venus: the effect of a strong primitive solar wind. Icarus 126, 229–232 (1997).

    Google Scholar 

  64. Lammer, H. et al. Atmospheric escape and evolution of terrestrial planets and satellites. Space Sci. Rev. 139, 399–436 (2008).

    Google Scholar 

  65. Lammer, H. et al. Pathways to Earth-like atmospheres. Orig. Life Evol. Biospheres 41, 503–522 (2011).

    Google Scholar 

  66. Fox, J. L. & Bakalian, F. M. Photochemical escape of atomic carbon from Mars. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28785–28795 (2001).

    Google Scholar 

  67. Chassefière, E. & Leblanc, F. Mars atmospheric escape and evolution; interaction with the solar wind. Planet. Space Sci. 52, 1039–1058 (2004).

    Google Scholar 

  68. Lundin, R. & Barabash, S. Evolution of the Martian atmosphere and hydrosphere: solar wind erosion studied by ASPERA-3 on Mars Express. Planet. Space Sci. 52, 1059–1071 (2004).

    Google Scholar 

  69. Spreiter, J. R. & Stahara, S. S. Solar wind flow past Venus: theory and comparisons. J. Geophys. Res. 98, 17251–17262 (1980).

    Google Scholar 

  70. Johnstone, C. P. et al. The evolution of stellar rotation and the hydrogen atmospheres of habitable-zone terrestrial planets. Astrophys. J. Lett. 815, L12 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  71. Johnstone, C. P., Güdel, M., Brott, I. & Lüftinger, T. Stellar winds on the main-sequence. II. The evolution of rotation and winds. Astron. Astrophys. 577, A28 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  72. O’Rourke, J. G., Gillmann, C. & Tackley, P. Prospects for an ancient dynamo and modern crustal remanent magnetism on Venus. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 502, 46–56 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  73. Jacobson, S. A., Rubie, D. C., Hernlund, J., Morbidelli, A. & Nakajima, M. Formation, stratification, and mixing of the cores of Earth and Venus. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 474, 375–386 (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  74. Gunell, H. et al. Why an intrinsic magnetic field does not protect a planet against atmospheric escape. Astron. Astrophys. 614, L3 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  75. Pieters, C. M. et al. The color of the surface of Venus. Science 234, 1379–1383 (1986).

    Google Scholar 

  76. Masset, F. & Snellgrove, M. Reversing type II migration: resonance trapping of a lighter giant protoplanet. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 320, 55–59 (2001).

    Google Scholar 

  77. Morbidelli, A. & Crida, A. The dynamics of Jupiter and Saturn in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. Icarus 191, 158–171 (2007).

    Google Scholar 

  78. Pierens, A., Raymond, S. N., Nesvorny, D. & Morbidelli, A. Outward migration of Jupiter and Saturn in 3:2 or 2:1 resonance in radiative disks: implications for the Grand Tack and Nice models. Astrophys. J. 795, L11 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  79. Raymond, S. N., O'Brien, D. P., Morbidelli, A. & Kaib, N. A. Building the terrestrial planets: constrained accretion in the inner Solar System. Icarus 203, 644–662 (2009).

  80. Walsh, K. J., Morbidelli, A., Raymond, S. N., O’Brien, D. P. & Mandell, A. M. A low mass for Mars from Jupiter’s early gas-driven migration. Nature 475, 206 (2011).

    Google Scholar 

  81. Bottke, W. F. et al. Stochastic late accretion to Earth, the Moon, and Mars. Science 330, 1527–1530 (2010).

    Google Scholar 

  82. Walker, R. J. Highly siderophile elements in the Earth, Moon and Mars: update and implications for planetary accretion and differentiation. Chem. Erde 69, 101–125 (2009).

    Google Scholar 

  83. Morbidelli, A. et al. The timeline of the lunar bombardment: revisited. Icarus 305, 262–276 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  84. Touboul, M., Kleine, T., Bourdon, B., Palme, H. & Wieler, R. Late formation and prolonged differentiation of the Moon inferred from W isotopes in lunar metals. Nature 450, 1206–1209 (2007).

  85. Kleine, T. et al. Hf–W chronology of the accretion and early evolution of asteroids and terrestrial planets. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73, 5150–5188 (2009).

    Google Scholar 

  86. Grady, M. M. & Wright, I. P. Elemental and isotopic abundances of carbon and nitrogen in meteorites. Space Sci. Rev. 106, 231–248 (2003).

    Google Scholar 

  87. Schaefer, L. & Fegley, B. Jr Outgassing of ordinary chondritic material and some of its implications for the chemistry of asteroids, planets, and satellites. Icarus 186, 462–483 (2007).

    Google Scholar 

  88. Schaefer, L. & Fegley, B. Jr Redox states of initial atmospheres outgassed on rocky planets and planetesimals. Astrophys. J. 843, 120 (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  89. Brasser, R., Mojzsis, S. J., Matsumura, S. & Ida, S. The cool and distant formation of Mars. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 468, 85–93 (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  90. Vickery, A. M. & Melosh, H. J. in Global Catastrophes in Earth History (eds Sharpton, V. L. & Ward, P. D.) 289–300 (GSA Special Papers Vol. 247, Geological Society of America, 1990).

  91. Shuvalov, V. Atmospheric erosion induced by oblique impacts. In 41st Lunar Planetary Science Conference Abstract 1191 (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2010).

  92. Shuvalov, V., Kührt, E., de Niem, D. & Wünnemann, K. Impact induced erosion of hot and dense atmospheres. Planet. Space Sci. 98, 120–127 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  93. Genda, H. & Abe, Y. Survival of a proto-atmosphere through the stage of giant impacts: the mechanical aspects. Icarus 164, 149–162 (2003).

    Google Scholar 

  94. Svetsov, V. V. & Shuvalov, V. V. Silicate impact-vapor condensate on the Moon: theoretical estimates versus geochemical data. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 173, 50–63 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  95. Pham, L. B. S., Karatekin, Ö. & Dehant, V. Effects of impacts on the atmospheric evolution: comparison between Mars, Earth, and Venus. Planet. Space Sci. 59, 1087–1092 (2011).

    Google Scholar 

  96. Pham, L. B. S. & Karatekin, Ö. Scenarios of atmospheric mass evolution on Mars influenced by asteroid and comet impacts since the late Noachian. Planet. Space Sci. 125, 1–11 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  97. Abramov, O. & Mojzsis, S. J. Microbial habitability of the Hadean earth during the late heavy bombardment. Nature 459, 419–422 (2009).

    Google Scholar 

  98. Ruedas, T. & Breuer, D. Dynamical effects of multiple impacts: impacts on a Mars-like planet. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 287, 76–92 (2019).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank F. Crameri for providing the perceptually uniform colour map used in Fig. 451. We thank D. Rubie for his comments. We also thank R. Brasser and K. Zahnle. C.G., V. Dehant and V. Debaille were supported by BELSPO PlanetTOPERS IUAP programme and ET-HoME Excellence of Science programme. V. Debaille thanks the FRS-FNRS and ERC StG ISoSyC FP7/336718. M.S. acknowledges the National Center for Competence in Research ‘PlanetS’ supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF). V. Dehant was financially supported by the Belgian PRODEX program managed by the European Space Agency in collaboration with the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

C.G. wrote the atmosphere, outgassing and escape codes, and designed the coupling between models. C.G. and G.J.G. wrote the impact code. P.J.T. wrote the StagYY code. S.N.R. designed the N-body models and designed related simulations. C.G. and G.J.G. designed the set of StagYY simulations. C.G. ran all the simulations. All the authors discussed the results and contributed to the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to C. Gillmann.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Peer review information Primary Handling Editor: Stefan Lachowycz.

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Extended data

Extended Data Fig. 1 Evolution of CO2 and N2 pressure.

Time evolution of a, CO2 and b, N2 abundances in the Venus atmosphere for three different LA compositions, labelled as CC material percentage of the total LA mass delivery. MAX parameters and LA scenario D starting at 100 Myr after CAI formation are used.

Extended Data Fig. 2 Evolution of water in the atmosphere of Venus.

Time evolution of H2O in the Venus atmosphere for MED conditions assuming different LA compositions, labelled as CC material percentage of the total LA mass delivery. LA scenario D starting at 100 Myr after CAI formation is used.

Extended Data Fig. 3 Evolution of water in the atmosphere of Venus.

Time evolution of H2O in the Venus atmosphere for MIN conditions assuming different LA compositions, labelled as CC material percentage of the total LA mass delivery. LA scenario D starting at 100 Myr after CAI formation is used.

Extended Data Fig. 4 Comparison of delivery mechanisms.

Volcanic and impact sources for a, H20 and b, CO2. All shown cases employ MAX parameters and LA scenario D starting at 100 Myr after CAIs.

Extended Data Fig. 5

List of parameters and values.

Extended Data Fig. 6

MAX, MED and MIN specific parameter sets.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Fig. 1 and Annex 1 (methods).

Supplementary Table 1

List of models and model outcomes after 4.5 Gyr of evolution.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gillmann, C., Golabek, G.J., Raymond, S.N. et al. Dry late accretion inferred from Venus’s coupled atmosphere and internal evolution. Nat. Geosci. 13, 265–269 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-020-0561-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-020-0561-x

Further reading

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing