a, Diffusivity and absorption. Except for Mars and the Moon, the scattering quality factor is given in the 1–2-Hz frequency band. To convert scattering Qsc to diffusivity D, we assume a shear-wave velocity VS of 3 km s−1 and a central frequency f = 1.5 Hz, which yields Qsc = πD x 1 s km−2, with D in km2 s−1. Where indicated, error bars provide the minimum and maximum acceptable values of the parameters. The red square with error bars corresponds to values for S0128a, while the other red squares illustrate values exploring the trade-off for S0173a and S0235b. See Supplementary Discussion 3 for more details. b, Several illustrative seismograms showing the impact of the geological environment on the anatomy of the seismogram for the Moon, and for Earth (crystalline Massif, France, or volcanic Mount St. Helens, USA). c, Mars seismograms and rays. The indicative rays of S0173a and S0128a events, made for MQS47 catalogue27 distances, are given for the minimum and maximum ray depth found from reference models45. The seismograms are the Z deglitched component, band-passed with a fourth-order Butterworth filter between 0.03–2 Hz and 2–7.5 Hz respectively.