Estimated greenhouse gas emissions of primary mined material production in 2018. Excludes energy carriers (coal, uranium) and mineral aggregates. Estimated based upon data from Nuss and Eckelman (2014)58 and 2018 production data derived from U.S. Geological Survey (2019)59 and the British Geological Survey60. 95% confidence intervals are shown. See notes in electronic supplementary Table S1 for derivation of the “Total” confidence interval.