Strengthening and poleward movement of the Southern Westerlies, and increased melting of the Antarctic ice sheet play a primary role in changes observed in the Southern Ocean over the past few decades, according to measurements and modelling.
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Silvano, A. Changes in the Southern Ocean. Nat. Geosci. 13, 4–5 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-019-0516-2