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Repeated drainage from megathrusts during episodic slow slip

Abstract

Pore-fluid pressure levels are considered to regulate the frictional strength and slip behaviour at megathrusts, where the largest earthquakes on Earth occur. Some analyses have suggested that the breaking of permeability seals during megathrust earthquakes causes subsequent drainage from the megathrust. However, it is poorly understood whether drainage follows frequent occurrences of episodic slow slip events. Here we analyse seismic waveform data beneath Kanto, Japan, for the period from 2004 to 2015 and show that seismicity rates and seismic attenuation above the megathrust of the Philippine Sea slab change cyclically in response to accelerated slow slip. These observations are interpreted to represent intensive drainage during slow slip events that repeat at intervals of approximately one year and subsequent migration of fluids into the permeable overlying plate. Our observations suggest that if slow slip events occur under an impermeable overlying plate, fluids draining due to slow slip events could be forced to channel within the megathrust, potentially enhancing pore-fluid pressure at an up-dip, locked seismogenic megathrust. This process might increase the potential to trigger large earthquakes near slow slip areas. Although stress transfer is recognized as an important factor for triggering megathrust failure, fluid transfer accompanied by episodic slow slip events will thus play an additional and crucial part in megathrust weakening.

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Fig. 1: Analysed seismicity.
Fig. 2: Correlation between supraslab earthquakes and megathrust slip rates.
Fig. 3: Temporal variation in P-wave attenuation, Qp1.
Fig. 4: Schematic interpretation of drainage process.

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Acknowledgements

We used the hypocentre catalogue unified by the Japan Meteorological Agency and waveform data recorded at MeSO-net stations. S. Sakai and Y. Asano provided us with the MeSO-net waveform data. We thank A. Hasegawa and Y. Takei for discussions. This study was supported by the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research programme (2017-D-21) and JSPS KAKENHI (grant numbers JP15K05260, JP16H04040, JP16H06475, JP16H06473, JP17K05626 and JP17H05309).

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J.N. performed the waveform analysis, and N.U. estimated the slip rates of the megathrust using small repeating earthquakes. Both J.N. and N.U. designed this study and contributed to the interpretation of the data and preparation of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Junichi Nakajima.

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Nakajima, J., Uchida, N. Repeated drainage from megathrusts during episodic slow slip. Nature Geosci 11, 351–356 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0090-z

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