Microplastic contamination of the oceans is one of the world’s most pressing environmental concerns. The terrestrial component of the global microplastic budget is not well understood because sources, stores and fluxes are poorly quantified. We report catchment-wide patterns of microplastic contamination, classified by type, size and density, in channel bed sediments at 40 sites across urban, suburban and rural river catchments in northwest England. Microplastic contamination was pervasive on all river channel beds. We found multiple urban contamination hotspots with a maximum microplastic concentration of approximately 517,000 particles m−2. After a period of severe flooding in winter 2015/16, all sites were resampled. Microplastic concentrations had fallen at 28 sites and 18 saw a decrease of one order of magnitude. The flooding exported approximately 70% of the microplastic load stored on these river beds (equivalent to 0.85 ± 0.27 tonnes or 43 ± 14 billion particles) and eradicated microbead contamination at 7 sites. We conclude that microplastic contamination is efficiently flushed from river catchments during flooding.
Access optionsAccess options
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $15.58 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Van Sebille, E. et al. A global inventory of small floating plastic debris. Environ. Res. Lett. 10, 124006 (2015).
Eriksen, M. et al. Plastic pollution in the world’s oceans: more than 5 trillion plastic pieces weighing over 250,000 tons afloat at sea. PLoS ONE 9, e111913 (2014).
Wright, S. L., Thompson, R. C. & Galloway, T. S. The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: a review. Environ. Pollut. 178, 483–492 (2013).
Cole, M., Lindeque, P., Halsband, C. & Galloway, T. S. Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: a review. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 62, 2588–2597 (2011).
Teuten, E. L., Rowland, S. J., Galloway, T. S. & Thompson, R. C. Potential for plastics to transport hydrophobic contaminants. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 7759–7764 (2007).
Teuten, E. L. et al. Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 364, 2027–2045 (2009).
Andrady, A. L. in Marine Anthropogenic Litter (eds Bergmann, M., Gutow, L. & Klages, M.) 57–72 (Springer, 2015).
Thompson, R. C., Moore, C. J., vom Saal, F. S. & Swan, S. H. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 364, 2153–2166 (2009).
Andrady, A. L. Microplastics in the marine environment. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 62, 1596–1605 (2011).
Rapport 2016 sur l’arc Atlantique (Expédition MED, 2016); http://go.nature.com/2CQUneQ
Mehlhart, G. & Blepp, M. Study on Land-Sourced Litter (LSL) in the Marine Environment: Review of Sources and Literature (Öko-Institut, 2012); https://www.oeko.de/oekodoc/1487/2012-058-en.pdf
Moore, C. J., Lattin, G. L. & Zellers, A. F. Quantity and type of plastic debris flowing from two urban rivers to coastal waters and beaches of Southern California. J. Integr. Coast. Zone Manag. 11, 65–73 (2011).
Dris, R., Gasperi, J., Rocher, V., Mohamed, S. & Tassin, B. Microplastic contamination in an urban area: case in greater Paris. Environ. Chem. 12, 592–599 (2015).
Faure, F., Demars, C., Wieser, O., Kunz, M. & de Alencastro, L. F. Plastic pollution in Swiss surface waters: nature and concentrations, interaction with pollutants. Environ. Chem. 12, 582–591 (2015).
Horton, A. A., Svendsen, C., Williams, R. J., Spurgeon, D. J. & Lahive, E. Large microplastic particles in sediments of tributaries of the River Thames, UK—abundance, sources and methods for effective quantification. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 114, 218–226 (2017).
Klein, S., Worch, E. & Knepper, T. P. Occurrence and spatial distribution of microplastics in river shore sediments of the Rhine-Main area in Germany. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49, 6070–6076 (2015).
Mani, T., Hauk, A., Walter, U. & Burkhardt-Holm, P. Microplastics profile along the Rhine River. Sci. Rep. 5, 17988 (2015).
Zhang, K., Gong, W., Lv, J., Xiong, X. & Wu, C. Accumulation of floating microplastics behind the Three Gorges Dam. Environ. Pollut. 204, 117–123 (2015).
Castañeda, R. A., Avlijas, S., Simard, M. A., Ricciardi, A. & Smith, R. Microplastic pollution in St. Lawrence River sediments. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 71, 1767–1771 (2014).
McCormick, A., Hoellein, T. J., Mason, S. A., Schluep, J. & Kelly, J. J. Microplastic is an abundant and distinct microbial habitat in an urban river. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48, 11863–11871 (2014).
Lechner, A. et al. The Danube so colourful: a potpourri of plastic litter outnumbers fish larvae in Europe’s second largest river. Environ. Pollut. 188, 177–181 (2014).
Wagner, M. et al. Microplastics in freshwater ecosystems: what we know and what we need to know. Environ. Sci. Eur. 26, 12 (2014).
Shumchenia, E. J., Guarinello, M. L. & King, J. W. A re-assessment of Narragansett Bay benthic habitat quality between 1988 and 2008. Estuaries Coasts 39, 1463–1477 (2016).
Hidalgo-Ruz, V., Gutow, L., Thompson, R. C. & Thiel, M. Microplastics in the marine environment: a review of the methods used for identification and quantification. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 3060–3075 (2012).
Corcoran, P. L. et al. Benthic plastic debris in marine and freshwater environments. Environ. Sci. Process. Impact 17, 1363–1369 (2015).
Hurley, R. R., Woodward, J. C. & Rothwell, J. J. Ingestion of microplastics by freshwater tubifex worms. Environ. Sci. Technol. 51, 12844–12851 (2017).
Dris, R. et al. Beyond the ocean: contamination of freshwater ecosystems with (micro-) plastic particles. Environ. Chem. 12, 539–550 (2015).
Lee, J. et al. Relationships among the abundances of plastic debris in different size classes on beaches in South Korea. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 77, 349–354 (2013).
Veerasingam, S., Mugilarasan, M., Venkatachalapathy, R. & Vethamony, P. Influence of 2015 flood on the distribution and occurrence of microplastic pellets along the Chennai coast, India. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 109, 196–204 (2016).
Lattin, G. L., Moore, C. J., Zellers, A. F., Moore, S. L. & Weisberg, S. B. A comparison of neustonic plastic and zooplankton at different depths near the southern California shore. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 49, 291–294 (2004).
Moore, C. J., Moore, S. L., Weisberg, S. B., Lattin, G. L. & Zellers, A. F. A comparison of neustonic plastic and zooplankton abundance in southern California’s coastal waters. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 44, 1035–1038 (2002).
Hurley, R. R., Rothwell, J. J. & Woodward, J. C. Metal contamination of bed sediments in the Irwell and Upper Mersey catchments, northwest England: exploring the legacy of industry and urban growth. J. Soils Sediments 17, 2648–2665 (2017).
Woodward, J. C. & Walling, D. E. Composite suspended sediment particles in river systems: their incidence, dynamics and physical characteristics. Hydrol. Process. 21, 3601–3614 (2007).
Galloway, T. S., Cole, M. & Lewis, C. Interactions of microplastic debris throughout the marine ecosystem. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 1, 0116 (2017).
Pallone, F. H.R.1321: Microbead-Free Waters Act of 2015 (Library of Congress, 2015); https://www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/house-bill/1321
Rochman, C. M., Cook, A.-M. & Koelmans, A. A. Plastic debris and policy: using current scientific understanding to invoke positive change. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 35, 1617–1626 (2016).
Zalasiewicz, J. et al. The geological cycle of plastics and their use as a stratigraphic indicator of the Anthropocene. Anthropocene 13, 4–17 (2016).
Corcoran, P. L., Moore, C. J. & Jazvac, K. An anthropogenic marker horizon in the future rock record. GSA Today 24, 4–8 (2014).
Flood Investigation Report: Greater Manchester 26th December 2015 (GMCA, 2016); https://www.greatermanchester-ca.gov.uk/downloads/file/199/boxing_day_flood_report_2015
Annual 2015 (Met Office, 2016); http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/summaries/2015/annual
Lambert, C. P. & Walling, D. E. Measurement of channel storage of suspended sediment in a gravel-bed river. CATENA 15, 65–80 (1988).
Owens, P. N., Walling, D. E. & Leeks, G. J. L. Deposition and storage of fine-grained sediment within the main channel system of the River Tweed, Scotland. Earth Surf. Process. Landf. 24, 1061–1076 (1999).
Duerdoth, C. P. et al. Assessment of a rapid method for quantitative reach-scale estimates of deposited fine sediment in rivers. Geomorphology 230, 37–50 (2015).
Plastics—The Facts 2013: An Analysis of European Latest Plastics Production, Demand and Waste Data (PlasticsEurope, 2013).
Cole, M. et al. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms. Sci. Rep. 4, 4528 (2014).
De Witte, B. et al. Quality assessment of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis): comparison between commercial and wild types. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 85, 146–155 (2014).
Water for Life and Livelihoods. River Basin Management Plan North West River Basin District. Annex B: Water Body Status Objectives (Defra & Environment Agency, 2009); https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/300524/genw0910bsri-e-e.pdf
Walling, D. E., Collins, A. L., Jones, P. A., Leeks, G. J. L. & Old, G. Establishing fine-grained sediment budgets for the Pang and Lambourn LOCAR catchments, UK. J. Hydrol. 330, 126–141 (2006).
Marttila, H. & Kløve, B. Storage, properties and seasonal variations in fine-grained bed sediment within the main channel and headwaters of the River Sanginjoki, Finland. Hydrol. Process. 28, 4756–4765 (2014).
McMahon, G. et al. Developing a spatial framework of common ecological regions for the conterminous United States. Environ. Manag. 28, 293–316 (2001).
Kim, I.-S., Chae, D.-H., Kim, S.-K., Choi, S. & Woo, S.-B. Factors influencing the spatial variation of microplastics on high-tidal coastal beaches in Korea. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 69, 299–309 (2015).
Fok, L., Cheung, P. K., Tang, G. & Li, W. C. Size distribution of stranded small plastic debris on the coast of Guangdong, South China. Environ. Pollut. 220, 407–412 (2017).
Fok, L. & Cheung, P. K. Hong Kong at the Pearl River Estuary: a hotspot of microplastic pollution. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 99, 112–118 (2015).
Cheung, P. K., Cheung, L. T. O. & Fok, L. Seasonal variation in the abundance of marine plastic debris in the estuary of a subtropical macro-scale drainage basin in South China. Sci. Total Environ. 562, 658–665 (2016).
Fischer, E. K., Paglialonga, L., Czech, E. & Tamminga, M. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments—a case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy). Environ. Pollut. 213, 648–657 (2016).
Hidalgo-Ruz, V. & Thiel, M. Distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on beaches in the SE Pacific (Chile): a study supported by a citizen science project. Mar. Environ. Res. 87–88, 12–18 (2013).
Fischer, V., Elsner, N. O., Brenke, N., Schwabe, E. & Brandt, A. Plastic pollution of the Kuril–Kamchatka Trench area (NW pacific). Deep Sea Res. II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 111, 399–405 (2015).
Clunies-Ross, P. J., Smith, G. P. S., Gordon, K. C. & Gaw, S. Synthetic shorelines in New Zealand? Quantification and characterisation of microplastic pollution on Canterbury’s coastlines. NZ J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 50, 317–325 (2016).
Kaberi, H. et al. Microplastics along the shoreline of a Greek island (Kea isl., Aegean Sea): types and densities in relation to beach orientation, characteristics and proximity to sources. In Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Environ. Manag. Eng. Plann. Econ. & SECOTOX Conf. 197–202 (Conference on Environmental Management, Engineering, Planning and Economics, 2013).
Martins, J. & Sobral, P. Plastic marine debris on the Portuguese coastline: a matter of size? Mar. Pollut. Bull. 62, 2649–2653 (2011).
Corcoran, P. L. et al. Hidden plastics of Lake Ontario, Canada and their potential preservation in the sediment record. Environ. Pollut. 204, 17–25 (2015).
Van Cauwenberghe, L., Vanreusel, A., Mees, J. & Janssen, C. R. Microplastic pollution in deep-sea sediments. Environ. Pollut. 182, 495–499 (2013).
Isobe, A., Uchida, K., Tokai, T. & Iwasaki, S. East Asian seas: a hot spot of pelagic microplastics. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 101, 618–623 (2015).
Laglbauer, B. J. L. et al. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 89, 356–366 (2014).
Sutton, R. et al. Microplastic contamination in the San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 109, 230–235 (2016).
Kooi, M. et al. The effect of particle properties on the depth profile of buoyant plastics in the ocean. Sci. Rep. 6, 33882 (2016).
Cózar, A. et al. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea. PLoS ONE 10, e0121762 (2015).
Gago, J., Henry, M. & Galgani, F. First observation on neustonic plastics in waters off NW Spain (spring 2013 and 2014). Mar. Environ. Res. 111, 27–33 (2015).
Faure, F. et al. An evaluation of surface micro- and mesoplastic pollution in pelagic ecosystems of the Western Mediterranean Sea. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 22, 12190–12197 (2015).
Collignon, A. et al. Neustonic microplastic and zooplankton in the North Western Mediterranean Sea. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 64, 861–864 (2012).
Yonkos, L. T., Friedel, E. A., Perez-Reyes, A. C., Ghosal, S. & Arthur, C. D. Microplastics in four estuarine rivers in the Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48, 14195–14202 (2014).
Eriksen, M. et al. Microplastic pollution in the surface waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 77, 177–182 (2013).
Free, C. M. et al. High-levels of microplastic pollution in a large, remote, mountain lake. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 85, 156–163 (2014).
Mason, S. A. et al. Pelagic plastic pollution within the surface waters of Lake Michigan, USA. J. Great Lakes Res. 42, 753–759 (2016).
Reisser, J. et al. Marine plastic pollution in waters around Australia: characteristics, concentrations, and pathways. PLoS ONE 8, e80466 (2013).
Nel, H. A. & Froneman, P. W. A quantitative analysis of microplastic pollution along the south-eastern coastline of South Africa. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 101, 274–279 (2015).
Costa, M. F. et al. On the importance of size of plastic fragments and pellets on the strandline: a snapshot of a Brazilian beach. Environ. Monit. Assess. 168, 299–304 (2010).
De Carvalho, D. G. & Baptista Neto, J. A. Microplastic pollution of the beaches of Guanabara Bay, Southeast Brazil. Ocean Coast. Manag. 128, 10–17 (2016).
Esiukova, E. Plastic pollution on the Baltic beaches of Kaliningrad region, Russia. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 114, 1072–1080 (2017).
Imhof, H. K., Ivleva, N. P., Schmid, J., Niessner, R. & Laforsch, C. Contamination of beach sediments of a subalpine lake with microplastic particles. Curr. Biol. 23, R867–R868 (2013).
Zhang, K. et al. Microplastic pollution of lakeshore sediments from remote lakes in Tibet Plateau, China. Environ. Pollut. 219, 450–455 (2016).
Wessel, C. C., Lockridge, G. R., Battiste, D. & Cebrian, J. Abundance and characteristics of microplastics in beach sediments: insights into microplastic accumulation in northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 109, 178–183 (2016).
Su, L. et al. Microplastics in Taihu Lake, China. Environ. Pollut. 216, 711–719 (2016).
Goldstein, M. C., Rosenberg, M. & Cheng, L. Increased oceanic microplastic debris enhances oviposition in an endemic pelagic insect. Biol. Lett. 8, 817–820 (2012).
Leslie, H. A., Van Velzen, M. J. M. & Vethaak, A. D. Microplastic Survey of the Dutch Environment: Novel Data Set of Microplastics in North Sea Sediments, Treated Wastewater Effluents and Marine Biota (VU Univ. Amsterdam, 2013).
Ballent, A., Corcoran, P. L., Madden, O., Helm, P. A. & Longstaffe, F. J. Sources and sinks of microplastics in Canadian Lake Ontario nearshore, tributary and beach sediments. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 110, 383–395 (2016).
Woodall, L. C. et al. The deep sea is a major sink for microplastic debris. Open Sci. 1, 140317 (2014).
Naji, A., Esmaili, Z. & Khan, F. R. Plastic debris and microplastics along the beaches of the Strait of Hormuz, Persian Gulf. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 114, 1057–1062 (2017).
Liebezeit, G. & Dubaish, F. Microplastics in beaches of the East Frisian Islands Spiekeroog and Kachelotplate. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 89, 213–217 (2012).
Claessens, M., Meester, S. D., Landuyt, L. V., Clerck, K. D. & Janssen, C. R. Occurrence and distribution of microplastics in marine sediments along the Belgian coast. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 62, 2199–2204 (2011).
Chae, D.-H., Kim, I.-S., Kim, S.-K., Song, Y. K. & Shim, W. J. Abundance and distribution characteristics of microplastics in surface seawaters of the Incheon/Kyeonggi Coastal Region. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 69, 269–278 (2015).
Yu, X., Peng, J., Wang, J., Wang, K. & Bao, S. Occurrence of microplastics in the beach sand of the Chinese inner sea: the Bohai Sea. Environ. Pollut. 214, 722–730 (2016).
Song, Y. K., Hong, S. H., Jang, M., Han, G. M. & Shim, W. J. Occurrence and distribution of microplastics in the sea surface microlayer in Jinhae Bay, South Korea. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 69, 279–287 (2015).
Mohamed Nor, N. H. & Obbard, J. P. Microplastics in Singapore’s coastal mangrove ecosystems. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 79, 278–283 (2014).
Zobkov, M. & Esiukova, E. Microplastics in Baltic bottom sediments: quantification procedures and first results. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 114, 724–732 (2017).
Van Cauwenberghe, L., Claessens, M., Vandegehuchte, M. B., Mees, J. & Janssen, C. R. Assessment of marine debris on the Belgian Continental Shelf. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 73, 161–169 (2013).
Zhao, S., Zhu, L., Wang, T. & Li, D. Suspended microplastics in the surface water of the Yangtze Estuary System, China: first observations on occurrence, distribution. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 86, 562–568 (2014).
Wang, W., Ndungu, A. W., Li, Z. & Wang, J. Microplastics pollution in inland freshwaters of China: a case study in urban surface waters of Wuhan, China. Sci. Total Environ. 575, 1369–1374 (2017).
Desforges, J.-P. W., Galbraith, M., Dangerfield, N. & Ross, P. S. Widespread distribution of microplastics in subsurface seawater in the NE Pacific Ocean. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 79, 94–99 (2014).
Dekiff, J. H., Remy, D., Klasmeier, J. & Fries, E. Occurrence and spatial distribution of microplastics in sediments from Norderney. Environ. Pollut. 186, 248–256 (2014).
Ng, K. L. & Obbard, J. P. Prevalence of microplastics in Singapore’s coastal marine environment. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 52, 761–767 (2006).
Aytan, U. et al. First evaluation of neustonic microplastics in Black Sea waters. Mar. Environ. Res. 119, 22–30 (2016).
Obbard, R. W. et al. Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice. Earth's Future 2, 315–320 (2014).
McCormick, A. R. et al. Microplastic in surface waters of urban rivers: concentration, sources, and associated bacterial assemblages. Ecosphere 7, e01556 (2016).
Lusher, A. L., Burke, A., O’Connor, I. & Officer, R. Microplastic pollution in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean: validated and opportunistic sampling. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 88, 325–333 (2014).
Amélineau, F. et al. Microplastic pollution in the Greenland Sea: background levels and selective contamination of planktivorous diving seabirds. Environ. Pollut. 219, 1131–1139 (2016).
Lima, A. R. A., Barletta, M. & Costa, M. F. Seasonal-dial shifts of ichthyoplankton assemblages and plastic debris around an equatorial Atlantic archipelago. Front. Environ. Sci. 4, 2–18 (2016).
Castillo, A. B., Al-Maslamani, I. & Obbard, J. P. Prevalence of microplastics in the marine waters of Qatar. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 111, 260–267 (2016).
Panti, C. et al. Occurrence, relative abundance and spatial distribution of microplastics and zooplankton NW of Sardinia in the Pelagos Sanctuary Protected Area, Mediterranean Sea. Environ. Chem. 12, 618–626 (2015).
De Lucia, G. A. et al. Amount and distribution of neustonic micro-plastic off the western Sardinian coast (central-western Mediterranean Sea). Mar. Environ. Res. 100, 10–16 (2014).
Isobe, A., Uchiyama-Matsumoto, K., Uchida, K. & Tokai, T. Microplastics in the Southern Ocean. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 114, 623–626 (2017).
Qiu, Q. et al. Occurrence of microplastics in the coastal marine environment: first observation on sediment of China. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 98, 274–280 (2015).
Retama, I. et al. Microplastics in tourist beaches of Huatulco Bay, Pacific coast of southern Mexico. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 113, 530–535 (2016).
Vianello, A. et al. Microplastic particles in sediments of Lagoon of Venice, Italy: first observations on occurrence, spatial patterns and identification. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 130, 54–61 (2013).
Thompson, R. C. et al. Lost at sea: where is all the plastic? Science 304, 838 (2004).
Akhbarizadeh, R., Moore, F., Keshavarzi, B. & Moeinpour, A. Microplastics and potentially toxic elements in coastal sediments of Iran’s main oil terminal (Khark Island). Environ. Pollut. 220, 720–731 (2017).
Dubaish, F. & Liebezeit, G. Suspended microplastics and black carbon particles in the Jade System, southern North Sea. Water Air Soil Pollut. 224, 1–8 (2013).
Enders, K., Lenz, R., Stedmon, C. A. & Nielsen, T. G. Abundance, size and polymer composition of marine microplastics ≥10 μm in the Atlantic Ocean and their modelled vertical distribution. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 100, 70–81 (2015).
Lusher, A. L., Tirelli, V., O’Connor, I. & Officer, R. Microplastics in Arctic polar waters: the first reported values of particles in surface and sub-surface samples. Sci. Rep. 5, 14947 (2015).
We thank colleagues in the laboratories in the Department of Geography and the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences at The University of Manchester for help with a range of analyses. R.H. was in receipt of a University of Manchester President’s Doctoral Scholar Award, which supported this research. We thank N. Scarle for assistance with the figures and the Environment Agency for discharge data.
About this article
Nature Chemistry (2019)
Nature Geoscience (2019)
Microplastic deposition velocity in streams follows patterns for naturally occurring allochthonous particles
Scientific Reports (2019)
Microscopy and elemental analysis characterisation of microplastics in sediment of a freshwater urban river in Scotland, UK
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2019)
Aquatic Sciences (2019)