Exploring ocean worlds on Earth and beyond

The exploration of ocean worlds in the outer Solar System offers the opportunity to search for an independent origin of life, and also to advance our capabilities for exploring and understanding life in Earth’s oceans.

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KPH acknowledges support from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the NASA. CRG acknowledges support from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Both KPH and CRG also acknowledge support from NASA PSTAR grant NNX16AL04G.

Author information


  1. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA

    • Kevin Peter Hand
  2. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, USA

    • Christopher R. German


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Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Kevin Peter Hand or Christopher R. German.