Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • Comment
  • Published:

A new cooperation agenda for European energy security

Europe’s approach to energy security has been historically split between the East and West. Given the rapidly evolving geopolitical energy security landscape on the continent, we argue that a comprehensive and shared approach to energy security — which incorporates hard security considerations — is needed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy this article

Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout


  1. Grigas, A. The New Geopolitics of Natural Gas (Harvard Univ. Press, 2017).

  2. Stupp, C. European Wind-Energy Sector Hit in Wave of Hacks. WSJ (2022).

  3. Sovacool, B. K. The Routledge Handbook of Energy Security (Routledge, 2010).

  4. Siddi, M. in Handbook of Energy Governance in Europe (eds. Knodt, M. & Kemmerzell, J.) 1–25 (Springer International Publishing, 2020)

  5. Sukhodolia, O. Russia Energy Policy as a Tool of Hybrid Destruction of the Democratic World 54–71 (Strategic Panorama, 2022).

  6. Collins, G.I Issue Brief: Russia’s use of the “Energy Weapon” in Europe (James A. Baker III Institute, 2017);

  7. Slakaityte, V., Surwillo, I. & Berling, T. V. Energy Security in the Baltic Sea Region: Transition within geopolitical constraints (Danish Institute for International Studies, October 2022);

  8. Grzeszak, A. & Ostrowski, M. Polityka,1, (2006).

  9. BNS. VST: Klaipėdos SGD terminalo apsauga sustiprinta, parengta greito reagavimo grupė. LRT (29 September 2022);

  10. Surwillo, I. Energy Security Logics in Europe: Threat, Risk or Emancipation? (Routledge, 2019).

  11. Raik, K. Eur. Secur. 25, 237–255 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Thomas, M. Why stopping Nord stream 2 matters for the Baltics. Baltic Security Foundation (10 October 2021).

  13. Жданов, В. «Надо вогнать Украину в каменный век»: эксперт рассказал об уничтоженной инфраструктуре. MKRU (17 October 2022).

  14. Головатенко, О. Факты ЛРТ. Украина. Энергетический террор: как Путин пытался запугать украинцев и почему это агония? LRT (7 October 2022).

  15. Fedchenko, V. Nuclear security during armed conflict: lessons from Ukraine. Sipri (March 2023).

  16. O’Neill, P. H. Russian hackers tried to bring down Ukraine’s power grid to help the invasion. MIT Technology Review (12 March 2022).

  17. James, L. Energy sector: More cyber attacks in 2022 than ever before. Power and Beyond (3 March 2023).

  18. Plėta, T., Tvaronavičienė, M., Della Casa, S. & Agafonov, K. Insights into Regional Development 2, 703–15 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Badihi, H., Jadidi, S., Yu, Z., Zhang, Y. & Lu, N. Diagnosis and mitigation of smart cyber-attacks on an offshore wind farm network operator. In 4th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems 479–484 (IEEE, 2021).

  20. REPowerEU: Affordable, secure and sustainable energy for Europe. European Commission (2023).

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Veronika Slakaityte.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Slakaityte, V., Surwillo, I. & Berling, T.V. A new cooperation agenda for European energy security. Nat Energy 8, 1051–1053 (2023).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing