Three-dimensional/low-dimensional perovskite solar cells afford improved efficiency and stability. The design of low-dimensional capping materials is constrained to tuning the A-site organic cation, as Pb2+ and Sn2+ are the only options for the metal cation. Here we unlock access to a library of low-dimensional capping materials with metal cations beyond Pb2+/Sn2+ by processing a full precursor solution containing both metal and ammonium halides. This enables easier synthetic control of the low-dimensional capping layer and greater versatility for low-dimensional interface engineering. We demonstrate that a zero-dimensional zinc-based halogenometallate (PEA2ZnX4; PEA = phenethylammonium, X = Cl/I) induces more robust surface passivation and stronger n–N isotype three-dimensional/low-dimensional heterojunctions than its lead-based counterpart. We exhibit p–i–n solar cells with 24.1% efficiency (certified 23.25%). Our cells maintain 94.5% initial efficiency after >1,000 h of operation at the maximum power point. Our findings expand the material library for low-dimensional interface engineering and stabilization of highly efficient three-dimensional/low-dimensional perovskite solar cells.
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All of the data needed to evaluate the conclusions in this study are included in the article, its Supplementary Information and Source Data. The data that support the findings of this study are openly available in DR-NTU (Data) at https://doi.org/10.21979/N9/G6R8YG. Source Data are provided with this paper.
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This work is supported by the Ministry of Singapore under its AcRF Tier 1 (Project RG6/21 (2021-T1-001-072) to Y.M.L.) and Tier 2 grants (MOE2019-T2-1-006 to T.C.S., MOE2019-T2-1-085 to Y.M.L. and MOE-T2EP50120-0004 to T.C.S.), and the National Research Foundation (NRF) Singapore under its NRF Investigatorship (NRF-NRFI2018-04 to T.C.S.). We thank the Facility for Analysis, Characterisation, Testing and Simulation (FACTS) (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore) for allowing us to use their electron microscopy, UPS instrument and X-ray facilities. We also thank the Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS) for PV authentication tests. We would like to thank Professor J. Bisquert (Universitat Jaume I) for the discussion on Mott–Schottky analysis. The computational work for this article was fully performed on resources of the National Supercomputing Centre, Singapore (https://www.nscc.sg).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Supplementary Notes 1–4, Figs. 1–41, Tables 1–18 and references.
Supplementary Video 1
The proposed FP capping process.
Supplementary Data 1
Source Data for Supplementary Fig. 36.
Supplementary Data 2
Source Data for Supplementary Tables 5–8 and 11–17.
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Ye, S., Rao, H., Feng, M. et al. Expanding the low-dimensional interface engineering toolbox for efficient perovskite solar cells. Nat Energy 8, 284–293 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-023-01204-z