Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Layered Li–Ni–Mn–Co oxide cathodes

Almost 30 years since the inception of lithium-ion batteries, lithium–nickel–manganese–cobalt oxides are becoming the favoured cathode type in automobile batteries. Their success lies primarily with their superior energy density relative to lithium–cobalt oxide, lithium–manganese oxide and lithium–iron phosphate electrodes.

This is a preview of subscription content

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1.

    Goodenough, J. B. & Mizushima, K. Electrochemical cell with new fast ion conductors. US patent 4,302,518 (1980).

  2. 2.

    Ohzuku, T., Ueda, A., Nagayama, M., Iwakoshi, Y. & Komori, H. Electrochim. Acta 38, 1159–1167 (1993).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Rossen, E., Jones, C. D. W. & Dahn, J. R. Solid State Ionics 57, 311–318 (1992).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Rossouw, M. H., Liles, D. C. & Thackeray, M. M. J. Solid State Chem. 104, 464–466 (1993).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Armstrong, A. R. & Bruce, P. G. Nature 381, 499–500 (1996).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Thackeray, M. M., Johnson, C. S., Amine, K. & Kim, J. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries. US patent 6,677,082 (2004, filed 2000).

  7. 7.

    Paulsen, J. M., Lieu, K. Y & Ammundsen, B. G. Lithiated oxide materials and methods of manufacture. US patent 6,660,432 (2003, filed 2000).

  8. 8.

    Lu, Z. & Dahn, J. R. Cathode compositions for Li-ion batteries. US patent 6,964,828 (2005, filed 2001).

  9. 9.

    Ohzuku, T., Yoshizawa, H. & Nagayama, M. Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide positive electrode active material. US patent 7,935,443 (2011, filed 2001).

  10. 10.

    Ohzuku, T. & Makimura, Y. Chem. Lett. 30, 642–643 (2001).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Thackeray, M. M., Johnson, C. S., Vaughey, J. T., Li, N. & Hackney, S. A. J. Mater. Chem. 15, 2257–2267 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Ammundsen, B. & Paulsen, J. Adv. Mater. 13, 943–956 (2001).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    NMC Lithium-Ion Batteries Patent Landscape (KnowMade, 2017);

  14. 14.

    USABC Low-Cost/Fast-Charge EV Goals (USCAR, 2017);

  15. 15.

    Myung, S.-T. et al. ACS Energy Lett. 2, 196–223 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Sun, Y.-K. et al. Nat. Mater. 11, 942–947 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Croy, J. R. et al. J. Power Sources 434, 226706 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Lu, Z. & Dahn, J. R. J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, A815 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Michael M. Thackeray or Khalil Amine.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Thackeray, M.M., Amine, K. Layered Li–Ni–Mn–Co oxide cathodes. Nat Energy 6, 933 (2021).

Download citation


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing