Antimony selenosulfide, Sb2(S,Se)3, has attracted attention over the last few years as a light-harvesting material for photovoltaic technology owing to its phase stability, earth abundancy and low toxicity. However, the lack of a suitable material processing approach to obtain Sb2(S,Se)3 films with optimal optoelectronic properties and morphology severely hampers prospects for efficiency improvement. Here we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach to deposit high-quality Sb2(S,Se)3 films. By varying the Se/S ratio and the temperature of the post-deposition annealing, we improve the film morphology, increase the grain size and reduce the number of defects. In particular, we find that increasing the Se/S ratio leads to a favourable orientation of the (Sb4S(e)6)n ribbons (S(e) represents S or Se). By optmizing the hydrothermal deposition parameters and subsequent annealing, we report a Sb2(S,Se)3 cell with a certified 10.0% efficiency. This result highlights the potential of Sb2(S,Se)3 as an emerging photovoltaic material.
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This research was mainly supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2019YFA0405600), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1732150) and the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA). X.H., M.A.G. and J.H. acknowledge funding support from the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (grant RND011). S.C. acknowledges support from National Natural Science Foundation of China under grant nos 61722402 and 91833302 and Shanghai Academic/Technology Research Leader (19XD1421300). The authors appreciate the technical assistance of and the use of facilities at the Electron Microscope Unit, University of New South Wales. The authors acknowledge the use of facilities and the assistance at the University of Wollongong (UOW) Electron Microscopy Centre.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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O-DLTS source data for Fig. 4.
TA source data for Fig. 5.
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Tang, R., Wang, X., Lian, W. et al. Hydrothermal deposition of antimony selenosulfide thin films enables solar cells with 10% efficiency. Nat Energy 5, 587–595 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-020-0652-3
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