Increasing the specific energy, energy density, specific power, energy efficiency and energy retention of electrochemical storage devices are major incentives for the development of all-solid-state batteries. However, a general evaluation of all-solid-state battery performance is often difficult to derive from published reports, mostly due to the interdependence of performance measures, but also due to the lack of a basic reference system. Here, we present all-solid-state batteries reduced to the bare minimum of compounds, containing only a lithium metal anode, β-Li3PS4 solid electrolyte and Li(Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2)O2 cathode active material. We use this minimalistic system to benchmark the performance of all-solid-state batteries. In a Ragone-type graph, we compare literature data for thiophosphate-, oxide-, phosphate- and polymer-based all-solid-state batteries with our minimalistic cell. Using fundamental equations for key performance parameters, we identify research targets towards high energy, high power and practical all-solid-state batteries.
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Financial support from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) within the FELIZIA project (grant nos. 03XP0026G and 03XP0026J) and the FESTBATT consortium (grant no. 03XP0177A) is acknowledged. We acknowledge discussions with T. Ates, S. Culver, C. Dietrich, M. Keller, P. Minnmann, C. Pompe, N. Riphaus, J. Sann and M. Weiß.
D.A.W. is now employed by Volkswagen AG and R.K. is now employed by BMW group.
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Supplementary Tables 1–9, Figs. 1–19 discussion and refs. 1–9.
Calculation table to evaluate lithium SSB performance from experimental data.
Prediction of performance characteristics of lithium solid-state batteries.
Prediction of the maximum allowed internal resistance and the required current density for intercalation- and conversion-type cell systems versus Li+/Li.
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Randau, S., Weber, D.A., Kötz, O. et al. Benchmarking the performance of all-solid-state lithium batteries. Nat Energy 5, 259–270 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-020-0565-1
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