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Benchmarking the performance of all-solid-state lithium batteries


Increasing the specific energy, energy density, specific power, energy efficiency and energy retention of electrochemical storage devices are major incentives for the development of all-solid-state batteries. However, a general evaluation of all-solid-state battery performance is often difficult to derive from published reports, mostly due to the interdependence of performance measures, but also due to the lack of a basic reference system. Here, we present all-solid-state batteries reduced to the bare minimum of compounds, containing only a lithium metal anode, β-Li3PS4 solid electrolyte and Li(Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2)O2 cathode active material. We use this minimalistic system to benchmark the performance of all-solid-state batteries. In a Ragone-type graph, we compare literature data for thiophosphate-, oxide-, phosphate- and polymer-based all-solid-state batteries with our minimalistic cell. Using fundamental equations for key performance parameters, we identify research targets towards high energy, high power and practical all-solid-state batteries.

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Fig. 1: Ragone plots for cells cycled at different temperatures.
Fig. 2: Relationship between layer thicknesses and specific energies of analysed ASSBs.
Fig. 3: Cycling results of analysed ASSBs.
Fig. 4: The maximum allowed internal resistance and achievable specific energy for intercalation- and conversion-type cell systems.

Data availability

All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this Analysis and its Supplementary Information files.


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Financial support from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) within the FELIZIA project (grant nos. 03XP0026G and 03XP0026J) and the FESTBATT consortium (grant no. 03XP0177A) is acknowledged. We acknowledge discussions with T. Ates, S. Culver, C. Dietrich, M. Keller, P. Minnmann, C. Pompe, N. Riphaus, J. Sann and M. Weiß.

Author information




S.R., D.A.W., W.G.Z., F.H.R. and J.J. designed the experimental work. S.R. and O.K. conducted the experimental work. R.K. carried out and analysed the XPS measurements. P.B., A.W. and E.I.-T. carried out the DRT analysis. T.A. and J.K. provided the solid electrolyte and cathode active material. S.R. and F.H.R. analysed the literature data and cell performance prediction. S.R., F.H.R. and J.J. wrote the manuscript. F.H.R. and J.J. directed this work. All authors commented on the manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Felix H. Richter or Jürgen Janek.

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Competing interests

D.A.W. is now employed by Volkswagen AG and R.K. is now employed by BMW group.

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Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Tables 1–9, Figs. 1–19 discussion and refs. 1–9.

Supplementary Data 1

Calculation table to evaluate lithium SSB performance from experimental data.

Supplementary Data 2

Prediction of performance characteristics of lithium solid-state batteries.

Supplementary Data 3

Prediction of the maximum allowed internal resistance and the required current density for intercalation- and conversion-type cell systems versus Li+/Li.

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Randau, S., Weber, D.A., Kötz, O. et al. Benchmarking the performance of all-solid-state lithium batteries. Nat Energy 5, 259–270 (2020).

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