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Intact 2D/3D halide junction perovskite solar cells via solid-phase in-plane growth


The solution process has been employed to obtain Ruddlesden–Popper two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) halide perovskite bilayers in perovskite solar cells for improving the efficiency and chemical stability; however, the solution process has limitations in achieving thermal stability and designing a proper local electric field for efficient carrier collection due to the formation of a metastable quasi-2D perovskite. Here we grow a stable and highly crystalline 2D (C4H9NH3)2PbI4 film on top of a 3D film using a solvent-free solid-phase in-plane growth, which could result in an intact 2D/3D heterojunction. An enhanced built-in potential is achieved at the 2D/3D heterojunction with a thick 2D film, resulting in high photovoltage in the device. The intact 2D/3D heterojunction endow the devices with an open-circuit voltage of 1.185 V and a certified steady-state efficiency of 24.35%. The encapsulated device retained 94% of its initial efficiency after 1,056 h under the damp heat test (85 °C/85% relative humidity) and 98% after 1,620 h under full-sun illumination.

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Fig. 1: SIG process and the effect of pressure, heat and processing time.
Fig. 2: Properties of the 2D/3D films fabricated by the SIG method.
Fig. 3: Intact 2D/3D heterojunction formation and its role.
Fig. 4: Device performance and stability.

Data availability

All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the published article and its Supplementary Information and Source Data. Source data are provided with this paper.


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This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (grant nos. NRF-2020R1A2C3009115, NRF-2017M1A2A2087351 (the Technology Development Program to Solve Climate Changes); NRF-2017R1A4A1015022) and the New and Renewable Energy Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) from the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (grant no. 20183010014470). This work was also supported by the Global Frontier R&D Program of the Center for Multiscale Energy Systems funded by the National Research Foundation under the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Korea (grant no. 2012M3A6A7054855). The authors thank S.-j. Park (Korea I.T.S.; XRD instrumental broadening calculation), W.-S. Chae (Korea Basic Science Institute; TRPL mapping) for their help during the course of the study.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



Y.-W.J., S.L., M.C. and J.H.N conceived the idea and interpreted the data. Y.-W.J. and S.L. shaped and optimized the SIG process. Y.-W.J. synthesized and analysed 2D perovskite powder and film. S.L. and Y.-W.J. performed the fabrication and characterization of the PSCs with support from K.M.Y. and K.C. S.L. and Y.-W.J. estimated the long-term stability of films and devices with encapsulation by K.J. All authors participated in the discussion. Y.-W.J., S.L., M.C. and J.H.N. wrote the manuscript. J.H.N. and M.C. supervised this project.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Mansoo Choi or Jun Hong Noh.

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Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Peer review information Nature Energy thanks Pablo Docampo, Wanyi Nie and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Figs. 1–23, Tables 1–6, Notes 1–4 and references.

Reporting Summary

Supplementary Data 1

Photovoltaic parameters of solar cell presented in Supplementary Table 4.

Supplementary Data 2

SIG-2D thickness and calculated built-in potentials presented in Supplementary Table 5.

Source data

Source Data Fig. 1

SIG-(BA)2PbI4 thickness with processing time shown in the Fig. 1h.

Source Data Fig. 2

Normalized PCE of solar cells shown in Fig. 4c,d.

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Jang, YW., Lee, S., Yeom, K.M. et al. Intact 2D/3D halide junction perovskite solar cells via solid-phase in-plane growth. Nat Energy 6, 63–71 (2021).

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