Two-dimensional Ruddlesden–Popper layered metal-halide perovskites have attracted increasing attention for their desirable optoelectronic properties and improved stability compared to their three-dimensional counterparts. However, such perovskites typically consist of multiple quantum wells with a random well width distribution. Here, we report phase-pure quantum wells with a single well width by introducing molten salt spacer n-butylamine acetate, instead of the traditional halide spacer n-butylamine iodide. Due to the strong ionic coordination between n-butylamine acetate and the perovskite framework, a gel of a uniformly distributed intermediate phase can be formed. This allows phase-pure quantum well films with microscale vertically aligned grains to crystallize from their respective intermediate phases. The resultant solar cells achieve a power conversion efficiency of 16.25% and a high open voltage of 1.31 V. After keeping them in 65 ± 10% humidity for 4,680 h, under operation at 85 °C for 558 h, or continuous light illumination for 1,100 h, the cells show <10% efficiency degradation.
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The datasets generated and/or analysed during the current study are available within the paper and its Supplementary Information. Source data are provided with this paper.
Any applicable code relevant to the findings is available from the authors upon reasonable request.
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This work was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (51972172, 61705102, 61605073, 61935017, 91833304 and 91733302), the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFB1002900, 2017YFA0403400), the Macau Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT-116/2016/A3, FDCT-091/2017/A2 and FDCT-014/2017/AMJ), the University of Macau (SRG2016-00087-FST and MYRG2018-00148-IAPME), Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (2019A1515012186), Projects of International Cooperation and Exchanges NSFC (51811530018), Young 1000 Talents Global Recruitment Program of China, Jiangsu Specially-Appointed Professors Program and ‘Six Talent Peaks’ Project in Jiangsu Province, China.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Liang, C., Gu, H., Xia, Y. et al. Two-dimensional Ruddlesden–Popper layered perovskite solar cells based on phase-pure thin films. Nat Energy (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-020-00721-5