Shown here are the expenditures reported by the countries to the MI Secretariat over time (in constant 2018 US$)3,4, compared to the initial pledged total5. The estimates are based on officially reported data to the MI Secretariat. Eight countries did not formally submit information on their progress to the MI Secretariat for at least one of the years: Australia in 2018, Austria in 2017 and 2018, Brazil in 2017 and 2018, Indonesia in 2017 and 2018, Mexico in 2018, South Africa in 2017 and 2018, United Arab Emirates in 2017 and 2018, and the US in 2016, 2017 and 2018. In these cases, we estimated the expenditure in two ways: IEA submissions based on the IEA RD&D database24 are used for IEA member countries (the US, Australia, Austria and Mexico); for non-IEA members, we used the previous year’s MI expenditure (that is, we assume no change in expenditure level). Additionally, the IEA RD&D database24 is used for the US clean energy RD&D estimate also for the baseline year, because the US baseline submission included expenditures on all energy RD&D, including fossil fuels. Values reported by member countries to MI in US$ were converted to constant 2018 US$, using conversion factors from the IEA.